Saturday, December 28, 2019

Equity in the Classroom Essay - 821 Words

Equity in the Classroom The concerns regarding equity issues in math and science may seem minimal, but in reality are very large. Usually unintentionally, teachers pay more attention, and give more positive attention to boys in their classrooms. This is especially noticed in the areas of math and science. â€Å"Girls are equal to or ahead of boys in achievement† (Sadker, 1993, p. 67) in the early stages of schooling. So why do boys seem to do so much better in math and science in the later school years? Perhaps it is not that boys are just smarter than girls are. Studies have shown that teachers give boys more attention in the early and crucial years because they fear that the boys will fall behind in their school subjects, and that†¦show more content†¦Matyas and Kulm (NCREL, 2001a) suggested the following on the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory’s website: â€Å"(1) use hands-on activities, (2) develop problem-solving skills, (3) foster co operative learning, (4) show enthusiasm and have high expectations for all, (5) use gender- and race-balanced oral and written instructions and materials, (6) use activities and resources that are familiar within the cultures of a wide variety of students, (7) include minority, female, and disabled role models in instruction† (Internet resource a). As a female, I have been very aware of this type of favoring for several years. I always thought that it was unfair that the boys were always called on in math class, and that boys always got to demonstrate the science experiments to the girls. At one point, I just wanted to give up and shrivel in a chair in the back of the class--but I didn’t. Instead I promised myself that I would do as well as I could. I never got equal attention in the math and science area throughout my middle school and high school years. I did poorly in chemistry and was not helped, even when I volunteered to come in before or after school for help. During my first year of college I was a dairy science major. There were only seven girls in the major and we were treated like girls. We were not allowed to do the physical work, but when it came to writing papers we were called. I demanded to be allowed equal opportunity in this major andShow MoreRelatedReflection On Change : Establish Equity Withi n The Classroom888 Words   |  4 PagesReflection on change Establish equity in the classroom can be hard work, and would mean that the entire team is committed to achieving equity for all students. However, it is with small changes we can go step by step to reach the goal. That is why, one change that I can in my classroom is to teach differently each day. â€Å"Just as heterogeneous grouping engages all levels of students, differentiated instruction engages all types of learners.† (DiMartino Miles, 2004, p. 47). How will I set thisRead MoreDiversity and Equity Audit in My First Grade Classroom Community932 Words   |  4 Pagesfirst grade at Lowe Elementary School; my class is made up of twenty-four very diverse seven year-olds; they come from all over the city of Louisville, from a variety of socio-economic situations. Each student brings a unique personality to our classroom community, and they all work hard to become â€Å"smarter and smarter† and to â€Å"go to college†. Thirteen students are boys and eleven a re girls. Of these twenty-four students, three of them are English Language Learners. Additionally, eight students receiveRead MoreChallenging Inequity: . I Saw A Great Establishment Of1707 Words   |  7 PagesChallenging Inequity: I saw a great establishment of classroom community, ethics and equity during my recent practicum experience with years three and four. The school regulations and policies concerning equity were established in the classroom and reinforced from the very start. These rules and regulations established were visually accessible within the classroom for all students and were reiterated orally throughout the day. Regulations around equity also engendered expectations for/of teachers. TheRead MoreParental Involvement On Children s Studies1217 Words   |  5 Pagesto be involved. Positive phone calls or emails home to encourage the parents to congratulate their kids on the success and tell them to strive for more. I stated before, this would be something that would be very beneficial to having a successful classroom. Auditing for Teaching and Learning is another significant key to a child’s education. The belief is that for students to learn they need to be entirely engaged. That engagement level is called Active Cognitive Engagement. This is the kind of focusRead MoreObstacles For Children At The Classroom : Bullies, Ineffective Teaching Strategies, Poor Classroom Management Essay1409 Words   |  6 PagesThere are numerous obstacles for children to hurdle in the classroom: bullies, ineffective teaching strategies, poor classroom management; however, the issue that concerns me the most is equity. I saw problems caused by lack of equity all throughout my childhood and I still see them now when I enter classrooms to observe. Personally, I struggled with the fact that I would never have the opportunity to travel the world like many of my peers were able to—my family simply couldn’t afford it. I feltRead More Reflective Research Paper1619 Words   |  7 Pagesgender equity ha s been used to help remove those biases. Equity refers to having equal expectations and treating students of different sexes and cultural backgrounds equally. Gender biases have been a problem in education for years. In the past boys and girls have had different expectations when it comes to education. Boys have generally been taught to take leadership roles and girls to take more passive roles. In recent years gender equity has helped remove gender biases from the classroom, givingRead More Reflective Research Paper1164 Words   |  5 PagesReflective Research Paper I have connected the reflective research paper to objective # 1 because it made me examine my personal belief and attitude on gender equity issues. I did not realize that gender equity existed at the level that it does until researching the topic. Doing the research made me realize that the way we teach directly affects how children learn in every aspect. Gender inequities in the fields of math and science are well researched and the results are shocking. WomenRead MoreEssay on Gender Equity in Education1632 Words   |  7 PagesGender Equity in Education Gender equity issues in mathematics and science have been the focus of many educators and researchers for years. Women have often been denied an equal education in math and science for many reasons. Parents and teachers must realize this fact and change their habits wherever necessary. Girls must be given the same opportunity as boys from the beginning, particularly in math and science where girls tend to lag behind. First of all, the term gender equity mustRead MoreEssay on Gender Bias in the Classroom1589 Words   |  7 PagesGender Bias in the Classroom RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND THEORIES OF LEARNING Gender inequity is not only learned and accepted in the socialization process that starts at home, but is also present in the school environment form the very early years. Parents and teachers consciously or unconsciously reinforce sex stereotypes. In 1992 Olivares and Rosenthals research findings examined three areas: Read MoreStudents Should Not Be Special Assistance933 Words   |  4 Pagesequal outcomes, or to promote equity. While there exists an apparent disconnect between these philosophies of education, they are fundamentally linked which ultimately demonstrates that providing mathematically talented children with special assistance is about supporting both academic excellence and about promoting equity. The argument that mathematically talented children should not receive special assistance originates in the view that education is about promoting equity. Providing mathematically

Friday, December 20, 2019

Chesapeake Life in the 17th Century - 1363 Words

Daniel A. Parra Ms. Seno AP US History, 1st 9/24/12 Chapter 4 Questions 1. What were a few of the notable characteristics of Chesapeake life in the seventeenth century? Some of the notable characteristics of Chesapeake life in the seventeenth century were that most of the population of early Chesapeake was killed because of diseases like malaria, dysentery, and typhoid. These diseases cut 10 years from the life expectancy of new settlers from England. Another characteristic is that women were severely outnumbered by men; therefore, it was hard for these settlers to populate the land they immigrated to. 2. What was indentured servitude? How did it work in the Chesapeake? Indentured servitude was a process where an indentured†¦show more content†¦When black slaves came in, they remained at the bottom of this hierarchy. 16. What group made up the largest portion of the southern social ladder? The group that made up the largest portion of the southern social ladder was the small farmers. 17. How would the typical colonial New England family be described? New England had nature on its side because compared to their disease-plagued neighbors in the south New England counted with clean water and coolShow MoreRelatedHistory: A Study of Colonial America873 Words   |  4 PagesThe colonies were by no means homogeneous. Lifestyle, customs, and demographics differed among the different regions of the colonies. Even by the 18th century, divisions between various regions and colonies existed. One of the manifestations of the diversity of colonial life was in one of its most persistent and pervasive institutions: slavery. Slavery existed on social, cultural, economic, and political levels. Although there are some common themes of slavery throughout the colonies such as theRead MoreThe Slavery Of The Chesapeake Essay1395 Words   |  6 Pagesthe main resource used in the Chesapeake tobacco plantations. The conditions in the Chesapeake region were difficult, which lead to malnutrition, disease, and even death. Slaves were a cheap and an abunda nt resource, which could be easily replaced at any time. The Chesapeake region’s tobacco industries grew and flourished on the intolerable acts of slavery. Chesapeake colonies of Virginia and Maryland were settled in the early 17th century. It was a difficult life for the first colonist; they hadRead MoreAmerican Slavery1079 Words   |  5 PagesDevelopment of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. In â€Å"Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake 1680- 1800† the main theme is the outcome of a long-term economic, demographic, and political transformation that replaced the farmsteads of the first Chesapeake settler with the kind of slave society described by modern historians. After a brief study of the social structure of the region in the seventeenth century, this work analyzed the economic and demographicRead MoreChesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies933 Words   |  4 PagesDuring the late 16th century and into the 17th century, two colonies emerged from England in the New World. The two colonies were called the Chesapeake and New England colonies. Even though the two areas were formed and governed by the English, the colonies had similarities as well as differences. Differences in geography, religion, politics, economic, and nationalities, were responsible for molding the colonies. These differences came from one major facto r: the very reason the English settlers cameRead MoreNew England Settlers vs. the Chesapeake Settlers Dbq810 Words   |  4 PagesSince the early 17th century, the English migrated to America for a variety of reasons. The promise of treasure, religious tolerance, and plentiful lands, lured gold-seekers, Puritans, Protestants, unemployed farmers, indentured servants, and younger sons (who had fallen victim to laws of primogeniture), to the land mistakenly named the Indies. English migration to the Chesapeake region spread over nearly a century, whereas voyagers to New England arrived within a single decade. One would thinkRead MoreHistory Of Tobacco During The Colonial Period1505 Words   |  7 Pagescash crop for the southern colonies. It was first discovered by Europeans after Columbus’s first return from the West Indies, and by the early 17th century, tobacco from the Spanish colonies was widely used throughout Europe. John Rolfe, a Jamestown planter, experimented and produced high quality tobacco which quickly spread throughout the Chesapeake Bay. As there was great demand for tobacco in Europe, planters grew tremendously wealthy and occasionally made the surrounding region prosperousRead MoreIssues Of Early American Settlement Essay1157 Words   |  5 Pagesend of the 18th century, around 100,000 indentured servants had been brought to the region by Chesapeake landowners. (Kennedy, p. 67) The founding of the New England Colonies in comparison to the Middle Colonies is like night and day - as night and day are still upon the same Earth, so the differences between the founding of the Northern and Middle Colonies are upon the same premise: religion. The New England colonies came into being by way of the Puritans in the 17th century – indirectlyRead MoreSlavery During The 19th Century900 Words   |  4 Pages In the early 17th century, the system of racial slavery had yet to be established. Slavery in North America evolved unevenly over the years, and the nature of slavery changed according to time, region and the colonizer. Generally, slaves suffered from malnutrition, diseases, intense labor and physical abuse from the slaveowners. The life of plantation generation was much harder as compared to charter generation. These people hardly escaped slavery as manumission was strongly discouraged by theRead MoreThe s Ownership Of Human Beings As Property Essay1117 Words   |  5 Pagesand ideas between Europe, Africa, and Americas New crops were introduced to Europe like maize and potato Horse had giant effect on Indian life In some areas, 90% of Indian population decreased due to the deadly onslaught of disease and conquerors The Protestant Challenge to Spain: England started to construct and increase its naval forces in the 16th century †¢Mercantilism – purpose was to benefit the Mother Country (England) by exporting more goods than importing Plantation Colonies PlantationsRead MoreAp American Historyï ¼Å¡ Slavery953 Words   |  4 Pagesservants, who could earn their freedom, even a few acres of land, within agreed years of labor. Since cash crops are the fastest and most stable way to wealth, the demand for cheap, dependable labor increased at the peak of mid 17th century, especially in the Chesapeake colonies. Africans seemed to be the perfect and most reasonable people to be the labor force behind the agriculture based economy of the colonies. Wealthy landowners import enormous amounts of African slaves from the West Indies

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Human Resource Management A Contemporary -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Questions: What Is The Importance Of Human Resource Management Within An Organization? What Is The Role Of Human Resource Management Within An Organization? What Benefit Does The Organization Achieve From HRM? Answers: Introducation managing people within an organization for maximizing the performance of an employee with appropriate strategic objectives (Kehoe Wright, 2013). It is identified that the profession of HRM plays an important role within an organization as it deals with various issues that is associated with compensation performance management, organization safety, benefits, employee motivation and more. It mainly plays a strategic role in managing people and workplace environment as well as culture. Source of secondary data:In this plan, secondary research method is utilized. It is identified that secondary research data are generally collected with the help of journals, reports of business, public records as well as statistical documents research questions are as follows: Search Terms: The search terms include: Importance of Human resource management Benefit gained from HRM Role of HRM within an organization Summary of the articles: According to Budhwar and Debrah (2013), an organization cannot build proper team of working professionals without proper HRM. The main key functions of HRM team are to recruit, train, and manage performance appraisals, motivating employees and more. On the other hand, it is stated by Sparrow, Brewster and Chung (2016) that proper HR department is very much important to an employee-oriented workplace in which the employees are engaged. References Beardwell, J., Thompson, A. (2014).Human resource management: a contemporary approach. Pearson Education. Brewster, C., Houldsworth, E., Sparrow, P., Vernon, G. (2016).International human resource management. Kogan Page Publishers. Budhwar, P. S., Debrah, Y. A. (Eds.). (2013).Human resource management in developing countries. Routledge. Kehoe, R. R., Wright, P. M. (2013). The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees attitudes and behaviors.Journal of management,39(2), 366-391. Sparrow, P., Brewster, C., Chung, C. (2016).Globalizing human resource man

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Healthcare Ethics Samples for Students †

Question: Discuss about the Nursing and Healthcare Ethics Answer: Healthcare practitioners re meant to live by a certain specific moral code during their working hours. However, the overall objective and goal for these ethics is to encourage patient safety and quality healthcare provision from the practitioners (Steinbock et al, 2013). In other words, the ethical code of ethics are used as a guidance for the doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare sector who practice and provide health care services, in making sound and valuable decision regarding the patients healthcare condition (Cherry et al, 2016). There are a number of health care ethics that have always been implemented in the healthcare sector in Australia. The country ought to protect its citizens and ensure practitioners capability to provide the best services to the patients. In this assignment, I will focus on discussing the ethics that are directly related to the case study in question. Some of the ethics include: Quality Care Provision Generally, the main role and responsibility for every nurse is to provide quality and upgraded health care services to their patients. This responsibility involves implementing or conducting other different activities or rather responsibilities like, administering drugs, making regular observations and checkups, cleaning the patients beddings and changing them, taking body measurements and being involved in conversations with the patients with the aim of offering support and company among other duties (Timmins et al, 2017). The registered nurses are often in charge of other nurses whereby they should ensure that all these duties are carried out effectively and efficiently (Hay et al, 2017). Quality care provision can be providing when nurses are well trained and are completely aware of their roles and responsibilities. This means that they know what to do, when to do it and where to do it. Every nurse should rather ensure that their duties are performed on time and with utmost perfec tion to encourage patient recovery and health condition improvement. To add to that, it is important for the nurses to provide quality services to the patients simply because the service is directly related or connected to saving human life (Holloway et al, 2016). The nurses are basically the ones to determine whether the patients health condition improves or worsens. The nurses are in charge of taking care of the patients before they are admitted into the hospital and after they are admitted till they recover completely. In this case study, the nurse in charge of all other nurses is intending to toss the patient aside after being restrained. The patient, Sam is obviously very physical in such a way that he poses as a threat to himself, other patients, and the hospital staff. Sams condition is making him become physical by pulling out his IV Cannula and verbally hurling insults to Camilla the attending nurse. This has made it difficult for the nurse to make her regular checkups and make body observations including readings with that kind of behavior. However, the Julia has decided to have Sam restrained and put aside for them to attend to other patients and leave Sam restrained. Julia thinks that Sam is wasting time for them all and therefore orders Camilla to leave Sam alone without being calmed and safe. This basically shows that Julia has no intention of attending to Sam any time soon. The nurses in charge of such situations should basically ensure that all the patients are safe, attended to and th at their health condition is improving. Julia should focus on ensuring that Sam is safe, observations are made and medication given to him to calm his nerves among other things. Critical thinking and decision making process It is crucial for every nurse to have the ability to think critically and make sound and effective decision concerning a patients condition and health. A nurse should be able to think critically when it comes to giving instructions that relate to patient recover and healthcare. This means that a nurse is responsible for a patients medication choices and treatment methods. Therefore, the nurse should ensure that their choices and decisions are focused on ensuring patient safety, environmental safety and health condition improvement of the patient themselves (McLean, 2016). In this case study, the nurse in charge, Julia indicated that she may have though critically by instructing that Sam should be constrained. On the other hand, she has decided to shift their efforts and focus to other patients by claiming that Sam is a danger to the nurses, himself, and other patients and therefore should be left alone. The nurse thought critically by making the decision to protect and keep other pat ients safe as well as the hospital staff. However, by not attending to Sams condition, which is their sole responsibility (provision of health care service and save live) was a responsibility and decision that was not critically made. Treatment and medication provision for life threatening conditions Basically, the nurses are responsible for administering medications and treating the patients according to doctors prescriptions. The nurses are supposed to do this by ensuring that regular observations, checkups, and body measurements are made to ensure health improvement (Purtilo et al, 2015). In the case of a serious illness, the nurses should ensure that the patients are all well attended to and treated according to their condition or rather with the aim of curing or reducing their pain or effects and symptoms of the respective illness (Milligan et al, 2016). This is done by ensuring that they are given total or more attention than other normal health conditions in order to save their lives. However, in the case study, the nurse in charge, Julia ordered for Sam, the patient to be restrained and attention to be focused on other patients despite the fact that Sams condition was listed as one of the emergency case. This meant that his condition would soon to death or any other serio us effects if not treated and attended to immediately. In this case, nurse did not adhere to the ethical aspects that relates to ensuring patient recovery and treatment. Also the hospital failed to provide adequate staff for the patients which means that some patients would lack effective and efficient primary care which may basically lead to health condition deterioration. References Cherry, B., Jacob, S. R. (2016).Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, management. Elsevier Health Sciences. Hay, M., Mercer, A. M., Lichtwark, I., Tran, S., Hodgson, W. C., Aretz, H. T., ... Gorman, D. (2017). Selecting for a sustainable workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of rural communities in Australia.Advances in Health Sciences Education,22(2), 533-551. Holloway, I., Galvin, K. (2016).Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. John Wiley Sons. McLean, S. A. (Ed.). (2016).First do no harm: Law, ethics and healthcare. Routledge. Milligan, E., Jones, J. (2016). Rethinking Autonomy and Consent in Healthcare Ethics. InBioethics-Medical, Ethical and Legal Perspectives. InTech. Purtilo, R. B., Doherty, R. F. (2015).Ethical dimensions in the health professions. Elsevier Health Sciences. Steinbock, B., London, A. J., Arras, J. (Eds.). (2013).Ethical issues in modern medicine: Contemporary readings in bioethics. McGraw-Hill. Timmins, F., Caldeira, S., Murphy, M., Pujol, N., Sheaf, G., Weathers, E., ... Flanagan, B. (2017). The Role of the Healthcare Chaplain: A Literature Review.Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 1-20.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Life Times of Alexander the Great Essay Example For Students

The Life Times of Alexander the Great Essay iiiIntroductionAlexander the great made an impact on world history that few individuals can profess tohave done. Heruled all of the known world, and one of the largest empires ever. His men were the firstwesterners toencounter tales of the Yeti. They even discovered and classified new types of flora and fauna,such as the redmold that grew on their bread while they were in Asia, and made it appear as if it were bleeding. He expandedthe Hellenist sphere of influence to the farthest reaches of the globe. When the king of Greece visited the British colony of India around the turn of thecentury, the colonialgovernment had some native Indian dances displayed for him. He was shocked when heimmediatelyrecognized the dances as the same harvest dances that his fellow Greeks performed nearThessalonika. Thiswas the breadth of Alexanders influence on hundreds of different cultures around the world. We will write a custom essay on The Life Times of Alexander the Great specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Throughout thewhole of Europe, Asia, and North Africa, stories of this great man have been handed down fromgeneration togeneration throughout the centuries. In many cases Alexander has even taken on a superhumanaura, and manyunbelievable legends have been based on his life. When Julius Caesar visited Alexandria, he asked to see the body of the greatest warriorof all time-Alexander the Great. Such was Alexanders reputation, able to impress even the powerful Caesar. He was,without a doubt, one of the most remarkable men that ever walked the face of this Earth. And thisis the storyof his life. 1The Life and Times of Alexander the GreatThe story of Alexander the Great is one of courage, genius, and great accomplishment;but it is also somewhat of abittersweet one, ending with his tragic death during the prime of his life, at thirty-two. Alexander was born to Philip II of Macedon and Olympias, his principal wife, in 356 BCE,mpic Games. Just three years earlier, Philip had ascended to thethrone after the death of his olderbrother, Perdikkas1, and named the city of Philipi after himself. Shortly thereafter, at the age oftwenty, he met Olympias at areligious ceremony on the island of Samothrace. Olympias was of the Mystery Religions, and was initiated at an early age. She spent hertime at wild orgies duringwhich snakes were wrapped around the worshippers limbs. She kept this custom of sleeping withsnakes throughout hermarriage to Philip. In addition, she sacrificed thousand of animals to her particular god orgoddess each year. Interestinglyenough, she had a cruel streak normally common only to the Greek men of her time. Throughouther career she was noslower than her male rivals to kill off enemies who seemed to threaten her. Olympias, believing that she was descended from Achilles, and being of royal Epeirosianblood herself, thought thatshe was rightly entitled to respect from Philip as his queen. For this reason Olympias wasconstantly upset at Philips longstays away fromhome. This anger was especially directed towards his torrid affairs with the nearest nubile2waif. At the time of Alexanders birth, Philip was involved in a campaign to defeat the Illyrianprovinces in battle andincorporate them into the Greek empire that he was building for himself. In that month, Philipreceived three messagesbearing good in quick succession: his victory over the Illyrians, Alexanders birth, andMacedonian victory in the Olympicraces. Alexander resembled his mother more than his father. It was in memory of Macedoniasgreatest king, Alexander I,that Alexander was named. Philip, currently engaged in a plan for the conquest of Greece andeventually parts of Asia, hadhigh hopes for his firstborn son to eventually continue in his footsteps. In the following yearAlexanders only sibling, a sisternamed Cleopatra, was born. .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f , .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .postImageUrl , .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f , .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f:hover , .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f:visited , .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f:active { border:0!important; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f:active , .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u24dc423229dbde1bf6b95401e79ce40f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Analysis of Artwork and Techniques EssayAlexander probably had no recollection of his father having both of his eyes, becausePhilip lost his eye storming anAthenian fortress. During Alexanders early years, he was watched over by a man namedLeonidas2. Leonidas saw to all ofAlexanders education and tutelage in many varied subjects including: writing, geometry, reading,arithmetic, music, archery,horseback riding, javelin, and other types of athletics. Alexanders nursemaid was an endearing gentleman whose name was Lysimachos, whowon Alexanders heart at anearly age by playing imagination games with Alexander and his playmates: Ptolemy, Harpalos,Nearchos, Hephaistion, andErigyios. When Alexander reached the ripe old age of thirteen, Philip decided it was time forAlexander to receive a highereducation better befitting his young heir. Searching throughout his empire, Philip was luckyenough to find a student of Platowho was at the time unemployed, a young genius named Aristoteles (commonly known asAristotle). Aristotles father, Nakimachos, had been Macedonias court physician, so Aristotle was 3quite familiar with the area. Aristotle taught Alexander, and sometimes his friends in a ruralsanctuary for the nymphs atMieza. Aristotle actually composed two books, In Praise of Colonies and On Kingship, forAlexanders education. Hetaught Alexander that other peoples were vastly inferior to the Greeks, and therefore fit forsubjugation. Alexander lovedAristotle like his own father as he said himself, One gave him life, but the other showed him howto live it.During this time , Alexander was involved in a homosexual relationship with Hephastion, afriend he loved dearly. This was a very common occurrence, looked upon as a learning experience for the boys. Theirlove was a very deep andclose one, and when he died prematurely during Alexanders teenage years, Alexander felt acrippling grief from which henever fully recovered. Philip was constantly conquering more territory, and though Alexander respected him, hewas also a bit jealous. Heonce told Ptolemy, Father is going to do everything; at this rate he wont leave any conquests foryou and me.During Alexanders sixteenth winter, Philip went to attack Perinthos in Thrace, andAlexander was left as regent inMacedonia. It was now, when Philip was away, that the Madoi tribe chose to revolt. Alexandercrushed the rebellionexpertly, in a merciless fashion. He was so victorious that when he built a walled city at the site ofthe battle, he took thefreedom of naming it Alexandropolis, after himself, thus beginning his illustrious career. It was love at first sight for Philip when he saw Cleopatra, the niece of Attalus, Philipsgeneral. The wedding was totake place immediately. At the wedding feast Attalus stood up for a toast to the bride and groom. In the course of hisspeech he calledupon the Macedonians to pray to the gods that of Philip and Cleopatra there might be 4born a legitimate son as a successor to the kingdom3.Alexander had been quiet throughout the celebration, but with these words, hed finallyhad enough. He rose andshouted, What of me villain? Do you take me for a bastard4?, and with that threw his goblet ofwine in Attaluss face. An enraged Philip sprang from his seat and made for Alexander, but being drunk, trippedand fell flat on his face. Alexander took the opportunity to further mock his fatherby proclaiming, Look, men! Here is the man preparing to cross from Europe into Asia, and hecant get from one couch toanother without falling down.After this incident Alexander no longer felt comfortable staying in Macedonia, and left withhis mother. Afterdropping her off in her home town of Epeiros, he continued on and finally settled in Illyria, wherehe was welcomed as afellow dissident to the monarchy. .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 , .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .postImageUrl , .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 , .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676:hover , .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676:visited , .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676:active { border:0!important; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676:active , .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676 .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u91468dcdfd68d6f94e7780f899066676:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Television and Media - TV Violence and the V EssayIn a story reminiscent of King David and Absalom, Demarates, one of Philips generals,convinced Philip to getAlexander to return. When Philip gave the affirmative, Demarates went to return Alexander to hishome. Philip soon forgotthe whole incident. Pixodar, the ruler of Caria and a vassal of the king of Persia, wanted to marry off hisdaughter to one of Philips sonsso as to secure a peace with Philip. Philip agreed, but didnt want Alexander, his heir, to marry avassals daughter, soinstead he chose Arrhidaios, an epileptic. Alexander was still suspicious of Philips intentions (after Attaluss speech), and his friendsconvinced him that Philipwas planning on making Arrhidaios his heir in Alexanders stead. Therefore Alexander offered toPixodar that he should takeArrhidaioss place, noting that Arrhidaios was an epileptic. When Philip found out, he was mad as all Hell, but treated Alexander maturely byreasoning with him. He argued, Do you really think so little of yourself to be the son-in- 5law of a lowly Persian vassal?!Alexander had at last learned his lesson and began trusting Philip. Philip, though hadfinally had enough of Ptolemyand the rest of Alexanders friends meddling in Alexanders business, and exiled them fromMacedonia sine die. In Alexanders twentieth year, Philip was ready to begin his conquest of Persia and AsiaMinor, but first he had tocement Epeiross allegiance to him by marrying off Cleopatra (his only daughter from Olympias)to King Alexander ofEpeiros. At daybreak the wedding procession began. Twelve of the Greek deities led theprocession with Philip followingclose behind. A man posing as a guard gained access to Philips entourage and stabbed Philip inthe side before anyonecould stop him. This man, later identified as Pausanias, had a horse prepared for a quickdeparture, but as fate would haveit, he tripped over a bush, and was transfixed with a spear before he was able to rise to his feet. But there was no helping Philip- he was quite dead. Alexander was a firm believer in the saying, The king is dead,Category: Roman Culture

Sunday, November 24, 2019

buy custom The Black Death in England essay

buy custom The Black Death in England essay Introduction The Black Death in England is considered to be one of the greatest natural disasters in the history that hit England between 1348 and 1350. It first reached England in 1348 through Bristol. Due to poor hygiene and overcrowding caused by the bustling population in London, the living conditions and sanitation standards were low creating breeding and spreading grounds for the disease.Also known as the Black Plague, their effects were felt in Europe, Asia and the adjacent cities in the mid-14th century. The plague was referred to the Black Death because it turned the skin of its victims black due to sub-dermal hemorrhages. Historians attribute the disease to an outbreak of a bubonic plague, which is a bacterium that is easily spread through fleas via agents such as the black rat. The bacterium that carries the disease is transferred into the lymphatic system through bites from fleas. Once in the lymph nodes, the bacteria often multiply and cause swellings which are known as buboes.The speed at which the bacteria spread is so high that it reaches the lungs and the spleen forcing patients to succumb after a few days. This paper maintains that the Black Death in England caused severe consequences and had far-reaching effects on the socioeconomic, political, cultural, religious and medical structures in England. The paper will thus explore these consequences and effects. What the Black Death did and its Effects in England According to the existent records, the Black Death killed approximately 30-40% of the English population.As a result, many people were literary thrown into open communal pits in England. On a general note, it is believed that the plague killed people indiscriminately. For example, the Black Death struck the daughter of King Edward III (1312-1377). Joan contracted the fatal disease and died in Bayonne on 2 September 1348 after receiving her parents blessing for a marriage to King Pedro of Castille who was the son of Alfonso XI and Maria Portugal.However, data collected in the aftermath of the plague indicate that it killed the oldest, poorest and the youngest population first. As a result of the Black Death, there were towns and villages in England that remained without people and thus disappeared. According to demographic and historical records, the population did not fully replenish from the sting of the plague until in the late eighteenth century. The peasants had to flee from their fields out of the anxiety and fear of catching the decease. Livestock in the villages were left un-attended and were to look after themselves while crops were left to rot. Consequently, many villages, homes, towns and houses were left desolated since the occupants either succumbed to the plague or migrated to the cities. People got confused and could not clearly tell the origin of the disease that was threatening to wipe the entire population from existence.Considering that this was a wrath from God, many people resorted to public penitence acts such as processions lasting for three days that were meant to appease God. Unfortunately, these public acts only contributed to the spread of the disease even further. The disease kept on mutating until in the late 17th century when England became generally free of the deadly plague. The Social and Economic Consequences of the Black Death in England The Black Death in England led to a sudden shortage of labor for agricultural production. This shortage resulted in the increase in wages as the landowners desperately needed farm labor. This was generally caused by the fact that the population was so low that the need for labor could not be fully satisfied. In 1949, the Ordinances of Laborers was legislated to enhance return to pre-plague wage levels but the efforts were all futile since the shortage for laborers was great. Consequently, wages increased even further.The landowners responded to the crisis by offering food, drink among other additional benefits to try and lure laborers. This implies that the Black Death was a blessing in disguise for the laborers who could survive the deadly plague. Extensive land that was meant for farming and production of food could not be ploughed due to the high labor costs emanating from the acute shortage of laborers. Hence, this land was used for pasturing and not farming. The clothes and woolen industry got boosted as a result of the Black Death in England.Many landowners were also forced to lease their land since they were unable to get adequate rental income they expected. Besides, most peasants took advantage of the situation to benefit from better labor wages and also gained from additional employment opportunities with better wages. Despite the economic potentials and actual boom in the rural areas, some markets and towns still disappeare. Most cities were significantly affected by the plague. As a result, financial business was interrupted as debtors succumbed to the disease leaving the creditors without any alternative to resort to.The construction projects that were ongoing either stalled or had to stop altogether even as guilds continued to lose their craftsmen day after another without replacements. The supply of goods in the market shot higher than the demand due to high mortality rates in England caused by the Black Death. Consequently, the price of goods declined heavily while the standard of living for the remnants rose. The demographic features/aspects of England changed as a result of the Black Death. The plague killed 30-40% of the total population.This had significant effect on the population structure of England. England also registered mass exodus of the rural population to the cities and towns. This is because the landowners/lords continued to encourage the peasants to leave their villages and work for them for better payments. The landowners who remained in the countryside could thus not find enough laborers to work in their farms. Since the menace led to an acute shortage of labor and increase in wages, agricultural production declined.This led to food insecurity in some villages where agricultural activities stopped or stalled due to shortage of labor as people succumbed or migrated in response to the dreaded plague. In some cases, it was suggested that moral degradation was the cause of the Black Death. On the part of the landowners, the rise of wages was an indicator of social uprisings and insubordination. Thus, they resorted to coercion to suppress the rising wages. However, this was not possible due to the social and economic realities that the entire population was gulping with.England also witnessed a sudden onset of persecutions especially the Jews and lepers.These populations were persecuted out of a false belief that they poisoned the water and air and spread the disease. Some were even exterminated from Europe, massacred, burned and in some cases drowned in marshes. These fatal attacks were executed in the false belief that the victims contributed to the spread of the deadly plague. On a general note, the pestilence transformed the mood of England population setting stage for a morbid mood. As a result, people became very pessimistic and lived for a moment with the future looking very unsecure and un-assured. Political Consequences of the Black Death in England As a result of the unfolding realities relating to labor, King Edward II passed the Ordinance of Laborers in 1349 in an attempt to fix wages at pre-plague levels.This had to be reinforced by the legislation of the Statute of Laborers in 1351. However, the legislations were very inefficient enhancing market regulation. As a result of excessive use of force, the government encountered public resentment which later led to the development of the Peasants Revolt in 1381. While trying to restore wages to the pre-plague levels, the government met very stiff opposition.The Peasants Revolt led to the killing of both Chancellor and Treasurer as peasants demanded total abolition of serfdom. Consequently, the serfdom was completely extinct in England by 1400 and instead replaced by a tenure system known as copyhold. One of the greatest impacts of the Black Death in England was felt in the field of war. The government became incapable and could not finance its military strategies effectively due to the great depression that the military personnel were already suffering from as a result of deaths in the home country. Besides, the government lost the financial ability to effectively execute its military plans and strategies. In the long term, the Black Death led to the decline of the Feudal system which was effectively in operation before the onset of the plague. The government tried to contain it but could not, particularly because the landowners/lords promoted the system in a bid to access labor which was not only unavailable but also very expensive for those that could find laborers. Religious Consequences of the Black Death in England The Black Death occurred during the Middle Ages and had a great impact on the religious practices in England. The clergy got overwhelmed and could not continue leading the performance of last rites, live alone giving some aid to help the victims of the plague.There was a requirement that before death, people are given opportunity to confess their sins. This was officiated by the priests or the clergy. As a result of the swift rate at which the disease was spreading, the clergy even allowed the victims of the plague to engage in confessions of sin, one for another and in some cases to a woman. The situation was so bad that Pope Clement VI had to grant remission of sins especially to all thosee who died as a result of the Black Death. In the isolated places such as prisons and monasteries, the death rates were very high. In fact, existing records indicate that even the clergy who were supposed to lead confessions died of the plague. In a single year, it is recorded that two-thirds of t he clergy actually succumbed to the fatal plague. Many people frantically participated in the Dance of Death. This was an allegory that personified death and led to a row of dancing figures from various places and dancing all the way to the grave. The Dance of Death was performed in cemeteries, as others were celebrated privately in the Black Mass. In such instances, the dancers mimicked religion in a mad preoccupation with appeasement of the devil. The Church got alienated as many people resorted to other religious groups such as the Order of the Flagellants. Flagellants were involved in self-flogging which they believed offered atonement for sin. They could travel two by two in the streets, flogging each other with chains, whips and rods.Unfortunately, as they travelled from town to town spreading their new religion, they spread the disease even further. The clergy also organized public repentance meetings that aimed at appeasing God to remove the pestilence from the people after repentance. However, since the disease was contagio us, the crowding during the penitence meetings contributed to further spread of the disease. On a general note, the Church was discredited and lost public confidence especially because of its position during the Black Death. Cultural Consequences of the Black Death in England Arts and culture in England greatly changed as a result of the Black Death. The European culture witnessed a sudden transformation and became largely morbid. In order to depict the general mood of pessimism caused by the plague, the arts were decorated with dark colors. Sculptors and painters started portraying dead and dying images in their artwork. Additionally, the attitude of people towards music and art changed due to the surrounding depression.During this time, the wealthy were willing to spend money on religious art for churches and even chapels throughout the land. The sculptors and artists therefore had a lot of sales during this menace. Besides, most decorations, paintings and cultural artworks displayed skeletons to depict the general lifeless nature of England after it got struck by the pestilence. The Consequences of the Black Death and Medical Practices in England The Black Death had a significant bearing on the medical treatment approaches of the medieval ages. Alchemy was a specialty and a common method of treatment during the breakout of the plague and even after. However, when the doctors realized that this specialty could not treat the disease that causes the Black Death, it started to lose popularity.In many cases where it was used, alchemy could not contain the spread of the epidemic. In fact, there are instances when the use of alchemy as a treatment practice against the Black Death only worsened the condition of the patients admitted for medical attention. After the use of alchemy to treat patients who contracted the disease failed, the alchemist made liquor-distilled alcohol-to deal with the plague. However, this was also not successful and instead only led to the popularity and spread of alcohol consumption in the entire Europe during and after the period of the Black Death. The manner in which the doctors in the medieval ages responded to the Black Death is proofs that the menace was mysterious even to the medical practitioners. The disease was generally caused by contamination and poor sanitation. Since it was highly contagious, it could spread quickly in the crowded places, a simple understanding that even the doctors and the medical personnel then, could not reveal. Conclusion The Black Death was a plague that had significant impact in England. It had memorable but adverse consequences on the social, economic, political, cultural, religious and medical aspects of life in England. It is estimated that the plague swept approximately 30-40% of the total English population. The population structure, economic and political situation of England and the entire Europe got a sudden overhaul as a result of the menace. Although demographic data of England before, during, and after the plague gives estimations of the extent to which the plague affected the society, these may be just simple estimations or approximations and not the real depictions of the menace. Buy custom The Black Death in England essay

Thursday, November 21, 2019

TET Offensive Literature comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

TET Offensive Literature comparison - Essay Example This military operation was launched by the army of North Vietnam along with armed forces of Viet Cong against the South Vietnam forces and those of United States. The crusade against South Vietnam was unplanned and came as a bolt from the blue. This military attack was referred to as TET Offensive owing to a previous agreement during the celebrations of the TET Lunar New Year of a ceasefire that would continue for two days. There were a series of military attacks launched during the night hours of January 30, 1968 although the main and massive operations began in the morning of the next day. Although, there was an announcement previously about ceasefire, these surprise attack left the armed forces of South Vietnam and United States in a maze initially. However, the united forces of these countries managed to retaliate and regain control of the cities. Being one of the most memorable events in history, which took a bitter turn after the celebrations of the TET Lunar Year, it is no wonder that the author has described this military crusade as one of the most intriguing aspects of Vietnam War. Thus, the journal, referred to as ‘The Turning Point of the War’ explores the political angle of this incident to a great extent. Similarly, the next article ‘TET 1968; The Military Offensive’ discusses the economic aspects of TET Offensive that are reflected during the current times and scenario. Although, both articles are fulfilling in nature, the authors have not really reached deeper beneath in the real sense.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Beckham's plan to build a new stadium for soccer in Miami Assignment

Beckham's plan to build a new stadium for soccer in Miami - Assignment Example To finance this, he intends to use his MSL contract of $25 million, in addition to collaborating with Simon Fuller and billionaire Marcelo Claure. The investors will fund the project privately, but are not close to the offer of state funding (â€Å"Beckham Unveils His Miami Stadium Plans†). Soccer in the USA has grown increasingly popular as a participant and as a spectator sport and with the construction of such a site, the sport could gain even more popularity. However, having such a huge venue does not guarantee that that is what the city needs. The project is already experiencing setbacks with the proposed site being considered inappropriate to erect a soccer stadium. It has also received mixed perceptions from the residents with some opting for more green space than a huge stadium. These setbacks could leave the investors with no choice other than looking for alternative

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Multimedia System Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Multimedia System - Research Paper Example So we can say that multimedia is exhibition of some form of information in any format. This can also be taken as the presenting information by means of numerous dissimilar techniques to obtain across those ideas (Multimedia Product development, 2009). Some years ago, purchasing a multimedia product for a computer was a pretty complex task, on the other hand for the reason that of the marvelous enlargement of multimedia applications, the majority of computers that we purchase nowadays are previously intended to execute and run multimedia products and applications. If we want to develop a multimedia sample or applications then we need a more powerful computer system. If we do not have such machine then its productivity will be lost, but now the majority of people having more powerful machines as compared to 10 years ago computers (Henke et al, 2000). The practice of development of a multimodal product encompasses a comprehensive planning for the over development process. In this circumstances we have to pay more attention regarding the way and tools we have, and which we adopt for the development of the system (Multimedia Product development, 2009). This research is aimed at discussing this development process and its main aspects. This section will discuss about the main aspect of multimedia planning process and events. Successfully developing as well as delivering a multimedia product or applications necessitates an additional powerful PC, very good designing qualities, effective programming knowledge and most important a creative mind. Though, if formation of high-end multimedia product is our objective, then we definitely need to consider positive circumstance that has been recognized particularly for multimedia product development (Henke et al, 2000). Storyboard is the basic step in every type of multimedia product development. In this first phase of the multimedia product development we build up and design a

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Nyasa Community Water Project Proposal Construction Essay

The Nyasa Community Water Project Proposal Construction Essay World Vision Tanzania plans to implement Water Project in Wela, Miguwa and Mbogwe wards in Nyasa Division, Nzega District, Tabora Region in Tanzania. The proposed five year project is expected to impact lives of more than 30884 people living in twelve Villages of Miguwa, Mbogwe, and Wela wards, 32% are women and 42% are children. The project aims at increasing the supply of water for domestic use through the construction of fifty-three wells (shallow wells and tube wells). At the completion of the project the water supply will meet 60% of the domestic demand from the current percentage that is less than 30% of the demand. The project is expected to contribute to the decrease in diseases associated to water shortage such as scabies, diarrhea and typhoid. The community will form water user groups at each well that will be responsible for implementation, management and maintenances of the wells. World Vision shall take the advisory and facilitation role to the community, government and other actors. It has the capacity and ability of rendering the above roles. It has been in the area for more than three years now. World Vision Tanzania will use the existing personnel in the ADP plus only one staff who will be the facilitator for this project. The project lifetime budget is estimated to be US$ 310500 implemented in five years. Community contribution is estimated at 31 %( US$14500); in terms of cash labour and material. Therefore the total project cost will be $ 325000 2.0 PROJECT SCOPE AND COVERAGE The proposed project is located in Nyasa ADP and it will cover 8 villages of ,Malilita, Mwasambo, Mwanzoli, Idudumo, Iduguta, Mbogwe and Nhobora in Nyasa division ,Nzega District, Tabora region . It lies between longitude 32 22 E -33 41 E and latitude 3 23 S 3 42S.The project will be implemented within the existing Nyasa ADP and it will benefit twelve villages with a population of 23,884 people, who are living in 4241 households. 46% of the population is males while 51% are female. Children constitute 41.6% of total population. Under five constitute 14.3% and under one accounts for 4% of the total population this is according to 2002 National census. Climatic features: Attitudes 1000 1400 above seas level. In low land the soils are typical deep, fine to medium textured, yellowish to grayish brown or dark gray .In the hills area the soils are stony, rocky and gravely with pocket of very shallow, excessively drained and very gravelly loams. 2.1. WATER In Tanzania only 42% of the population has access to clean water. The situation is even worse in the rural areas Nyasa community area included. The water sources available in the area are less than 30% of the need and the quality is not guaranteed. In the dry season the situation is extremely worse. At Regional and District level water situation is almost the same. There has been persistent drought and unreliable rainfall, which lead to water scarcity in the Region as well as in the Program area. Water sources, which include ponds, Chaco dams, and temporary rivers/springs in most cases, are drying during the dry season. The ADP area to date is having only one protected and functional shallow well which is located in Miguwa Village. There are others unprotected and seasonal wells scattered in different villages. Pond is one of the main sources of water, which is used intensively with human and animals for drinking water as well as for other domestic purpose. Nyasa ADP area is having 116 ponds situated in different parts of the area. Water scarcity has led to vegetation depletion in the project area. Crop production keeps on declining and livestock become affected. Water related diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, skin diseases and conductivities are at the increase. Little efforts and inputs have gone in to avail safe clean water through constructed protected shallow wells/tube wells, which has led to prevalence of water borne disease. 3.0 ORGANIZATION INVOLVEMENT AND EXPERIENCE World Vision Tanzania has been carrying water projects in different parts of the country for a considerable numbers of years; projects likes Bukombe Water in Ushirombo District Shinyanga Region, SHAWASA in Arusha region and many others. The sustainability elements in all of these projects has been clearly observed, water user groups having significant money in their bank accounts for the maintenances and repairs of the pumps, having two or more pump attendants with some technical skills for maintenance of their pumps, these are common features in those projects. World Vision Tanzania has been operational in Nzega District since 1996 through Nzega Community Development Project, by the year 2000/2001 Nyasa ADP came into operational. Through all that time WVT has managed to establish a strong relationship with the community, community leaders, government and other NGOs. World Vision supports have made a greater impact to the lives of the Nzega people, Wela, Mbogwe and Miguwa wards included. 4.0 PROJECT RATIONALES AND JUSTIFICATION Despite considerable efforts made during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade of the 1980s, the rate of improved access to safe water supply and sanitation facilities is still very low. Tanzania population is estimated to be over 34 million people, 80% of the population lives in villages and only 50% of the population lives in villages have access to clean and safe water. 30% of the existing water supply in the country is not functioning. Water situation in Nzega District is also not promising. No any permanent river passing through in the district, only 33% of the people in the district are accessing clean water (Nzega District land use framework plan, Feb 1999). The government in the past years has been trying to dig big water ponds to harvest rains water but if the rain didnt rain properly in the said year the challenge is still there. There is a goldmine that has supported a pipeline scheme in Nzega town taping water from those ponds; this is very expensive scheme because of the water treatment. It is only in Mwakalundi Division where World Vision through Nzega Community Development Project addressed the water issue very significantly. 99% of the water sources within Nyasa ADP are unprotected ponds, spring and hand dug wells these are seasonal and drying up as from the month of July to October. They are far located such that walking distance from home stead to water sources is 4-8 km during dry season and 2-3 km in rain season (Nyasa ADP Baseline survey Report 2001), this is mainly affecting women and girl child since they are the one who are fetching the water in the family; sometimes fore gore even a meal to make sure they bring water home. There is no single operating piped water supply system while there is only one protected shallow well functioning in the whole of the ADP area. The concentration of animal excretes at water point is common. We expect that the project will increase accessibility of water for domestic use, which in turn will reduce walking distance for water fetching that meant more time for other developmental activities. Most of the people carry no water treatment. Poor hygiene and lack of potable water have accelerated diarrhea-associated diseases that stand the second in the list of top ten killer diseases in the area. The project is anticipated to help increase cleanliness of people due to water availability and decrease of the diseases associated to water shortage e.g. Scabies. The ADP has been in the area for consecutive three years now but it has been hard to address the water sector seriously due to its magnitude; also the ADP fund for the first three years was small and was meant for sensitization of the community even though water sector ranked to be the first felt need by the community during the baseline survey. 3.2 POLICIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY World Vision Tanzania is a community-based organization whose mission is to work with the poor and marginalized in order to attain transformational and sustainable development. As an advocacy and child focused organization WVT seeks to provide clean and safe water to the community within a walking distance of 400 metres and reduce water-borne diseases through digging wells, drilling boreholes, rehabilitation of dams, laying water pipes, rain water harvesting and even conserving the existing sources.. The construction of 50 shallow wells and drilling of 3 boreholes planned by this project is expected to relieve especially women of walking long distances for search of water and lead to improved school attendance of girl children. Not only that but also, the project aims for agricultural activities and irrigation purposes hence increases the economic growth of the country. The above idea is linked with the Dimensions of Rural Development Strategy which describes the realization of rural development in the context of the countrys development vision largely depends on the pace of growth in the agricultural sector, the adoption of a positive mindset by the rural society, and a re-focusing of the institutional framework on the rural areas. In this context, attention should be towards attaining the following: High Quality Livelihood For rural dwellers, high quality livelihood will mean having access to affordable basic needs. This includes having access to sufficient and adequate food, preventive and curative health care; shelter and clothing; education and training; and safe water. They also need access to irrigation, energy, information, transportation and communication. An Enabling and Peoples Empowering Environment Any initiative towards realizing human development and reducing poverty in a more consistent and sustainable manner should involve the people concerned. This implies that the stakeholders: communities; individuals; households; firms; organization and associations, are best positioned to know their social, political and economic problems and needs, as well as their environmental, cultural and spiritual aspirations. The Rural Development Strategy provides an enabling environment and effective institutional framework that puts people at the center of their development. People should be empowered to guide the development process and influence it towards the direction and speed they perceive it to be in tandem with their future development aspirations. Self-Reliance and Self-Sustainance The role of community and individual initiatives is of vital importance and is given due recognition in the strategy. This goes beyond providing and supporting enabling and facilitating institutional structures and processes necessary to facilitate implementation. 3.3 PROJECT APPROACH 3.3.1 Goal: To improve the quality of life in Nyasa community. 3.3.2 Objective To contribute towards increased accessibility of safe and adequate water supply in Nyasa community. To have water for irrigation system to sustain Agricultural activities. To reduce time consuming and long distance of fetching water. To have water for livestock keeping activities Indicators Percentage of people accessing clean and safe water from the new established water -Number of people having water for irrigation and livestock keeping activities. Out put 1 Conducting hydro geological survey Indicator Number of shallow well and deep well sites located/identified. Output 2 Shallow wells and deep wells constructed Indicators Number of shallow deep wells constructed. Number of shallow deep wells with suitable water for human consumption. Output 3 Established and trained water committees/ Water user group Indicators Number of water committees/Water User Groups established and trained. 3.3.3 Main activities Conduct sensitization meeting to set water goals Form/Train water user group on water sanitation. Conduct hydro geological surveys to locate potential sites. Support the Construction of the wells. Facilitate training of technical staffs on pump mechanics, well repair and maintenance Salary to Project facilitator. 3.4 APPRAISAL ISSUES As far as the concept of project appraisal is concerned is the process of analyzing the technical feasibility and economic viability of a project proposal with a view to their costs. Also there are different types of the project appraisal these are social, technical, institutional, environmental, and economic. This project deals with social, economic and financial, and environmental appraisal. 3.4.1 Social appraisal Through the project that will be implemented at Nyasa community. The community will benefit from the services as per clean and safe water policies in Tanzania. Also, the project will provide service to about 30884 people. The project aims to supply clean and safe water to the community in order to reduce lack of sufficient water, eruption of diseases caused by unsafe water currently used. 3.4.2 Economic and financial appraisal The community suffers from water and spends a lot of time by fetching water far from their residence instead of working and earning income. When this project will be implemented many of the people will attend their works throughout the day as a result they increase their income and those business men will pay tax to the government. Moreover, they will use the water for irrigation system and hence increase the agricultural production that will make the community to engage in business and increase their financial status as family as well as nation income. 3.4.3 Environmental appraisal There will be some effects on environment if the implementation of the project will be considering the policy for agriculture and livestock because we expect that after implementation of the project people will engage themselves in Agricultural activities as well as livestock keeping that will probably affect the environment. The environment will be improved with improved water supplies. Around each site the trees will be planted for both reduction of degree of evaporation and protection of environment. So the project is not expected to have any negative effect to the environment. 3.5 Project Stakeholders and their roles and responsibilities Are the one who make decisions during the initiation, planning and execution stages of the project. In the context of this project the project stake holders are; Project sponsor Provides agreement for funding the project and executive interventions to overcome organizational barrier. Project manager Responsible for ensuring that the project is delivered on time, on scope and on budget. The community Responsible for using the clean and safe water for domestic purposes as well as agricultural activities and also the community will contribute on the maintenance of shallow wells. Projects office Coordinates the organizations project resource, high level reporting, project management coaching and facilitation services. 3.6 PROJECT DESCRIPTION The project is intended to benefit the community and will focus on the overall objective of making sure water supply is sustained even after exit of World Vision. Mobilizing and sensitizing the community to form water user groups who will be responsible for the day-to-day management of the project will achieve this objective. Women will be highly encouraged to participate in the project planning, implementation and management. The shallow wells will be located in the sites, which will be shown by the water survey team. We expect that at least each between two Sub villages will have one shallow well. The communities will form water user group at each shallow wells site. The water user group will include both women and men. The WUG-will be responsible for the implementation of the project plus the on going management and maintenance of the wells. To this end a water user fee has been agreed to for the on going maintenance since the region is extremely poor the user fee will not be high. The Village Health Workers will be trained in operation and maintenance of the pump and water hygiene. 3.7 GENDER ANALYSIS. Successful water project has special significance for women. The women and children will benefit more directly as some of the women and children currently have to walk to about 10 km for fetching a maximum of 20 liters bucket of water each. With the reduction of walking distance the workload will also be reduced. The women group will be encouraged to establish vegetable gardening around the wells. Vegetable production and the proper usage of the same will improve nutritional health of women and children and will increase current investment in education and economic interpose. The water user group to be established will have at least 50% women among their members. This will increase their participation in decision making in the matters relating to water issues. 3.8 PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS The project team will be adhered committed to the project work. The upper management and stakeholder support and commit to the project efforts. The project will be delivered according to the project plan. The project plan will be utilized effectively. 5.0 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 4.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT Following the intensive dialogue with the community, the ADP committee will be responsible to over see the project implementation under the facilitation of the ADP coordinator. The WUG to be established in each of the construction sites will be responsible for the day-to-day activities. However, the Zonal manager will be the over all in charge of the project that will ensure that financial contracts, agreements and payments are done properly. At National level the project will receive a similar facilitation like WVT project programs. WV Australia as project contractor to the Australian Government will provide project management support to WVT and will be responsible for the following; reviewing quarterly reports and financial acquittals, where possible perform monitoring visits to the project for sharing of various issues regarding project improvement and participation in project evaluation. 4.2 PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION Monitoring activities will be continuous concurrent and integral featuring in all project components. Monitoring and Evaluation will be done in a participatory way. Monitoring indicators provided in the log frame used for the purpose and they can be reviewed, as it may be necessary. As part of monitoring the project will prepare monthly, quarterly and annual progress reports both narrative and financial. However, the frequency of reporting to the donor will depend on the requirements. WVT auditors will audit the project annual. The donor can conduct independent audit, as it may deem necessary upon consultation with the WVT National Directors. 6.0 RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT Purpose: To identify Risk, analyse the effect of uncertainties and plan for control. 5.1 Risk Identification: During this process the sources of risk, potential risk events, and symptoms of risk are identified. Risk is uncertain event which should it occur, it will have an effect on the project meeting it objectives. In this project, risk is identified by undertaking initial risk assessment as part of starting up the project by having the following questions; What could possibly happen to affect the project? What is the likelihood of this happening? Therefore the project manager has to get the team together to review the sources of risk for the project and brainstorm the specific risks. 5.2 Risk identification techniques The project will use the following techniques in identifying risks Checklist project managers must find ways to identify project risks rapidly so that project schedules become increasingly shorter. Flowcharts Helps the project team members to have a great understanding on the causes and effects of risks. Interviewing This is done by interviews with various stakeholders may help identify risk not identified during normal planning activities. Risk triggers The risk trigger is the event that would need to happen in order for the potential outcome to occur. Risk triggers are usually expressed with some sort of dependency, or qualifier. For example, a risk trigger might be that a resource on the project leaves. This might easily be accounted for by utilizing other resources. But if a resource with key skills or knowledge leaves, then the project may be significantly impacted. This approach is suggested in order to clarify the thought process of identifying risks. When the risk trigger occurs, the risk is no longer a risk, but has materialized into a problem/issue that needs resolution. 5.3 Risk analysis In this project risk will be analyzed by defining and analyzing the threat to individuals, businesses and government agencies posed by potential natural and human-caused adverse events. A risk analysis report can be either quantitative or qualitative. In quantitative risk analysis an attempt is made to numerically determine the probabilities of various adverse events and the likely extent of the losses if a particular event takes place. Qualitative risk analysis which is used more often, does not involve numerical probabilities or predictions of loss. Instead, the qualitative method involves defining the various threats, determining the extent of vulnerabilities and devising countermeasures should an attack occur. Risk need to be quantified in two dimensions. The impact of the risk needs to be assessed. The probability of the risk occurring needs to be assessed. For simplicity, rate each on a 1 to 4 scale. The larger the number, the larger the impact or probability. By using a matrix, a priority can be established. According to Juden, S (2010) below is the diagram that shows the risk probability/impact chart The corners of the chart have these characteristics: Low impact/Low probability Risks in the bottom left corner are low level, and you can often ignore them. Low impact/High probability Risks in the top left corner are of moderate importance if these things happen, you can cope with them and move on. However, you should try to reduce the likelihood that theyll occur. High impact/Low probability Risks in the bottom right corner are of high importance if they do occur, but theyre very unlikely to happen. For these, however, you should do what you can to reduce the impact theyll have if they do occur, and you should have contingency plans in place just in case they do. High impact/High probability Risks towards the top right corner are of critical importance. These are your top priorities, and are risks that you must pay close attention to. 5.4 Risk documentation and reporting Risk status: Project enables you to adjust the status of a risk. The risk status shows what has happened to a risk. This could be due to the tasks of the project team, but also changes in the risk conditions. Monitoring the status of risks helps you to assess what you should do with regard to individual risk and the project. Risk register This document is a means of recording the identified risks, their severity, and the actions steps to be taken. The risk logic can be a simple document, spreadsheet, or a database system. The most effective format for this document is a table, because it will allow a great deal of information to be conveyed in a few pages. If the information is presented in a paragraph form, you run the risk of people not reading it, although all of the relevant information is there. 5.5 Risk assumptions and control measures Lack of enough skilled and self committed people to participate in the project this may result the project not to be completed on time.. Delay of fund from donors may result on the project not to be accomplished at the specified time. There are four stages of risk management plan Stages Risk identification Risk quantification Risk response Risk monitoring and control Objective in project The project team has to identify and name the risks that are found in the project. The project manager needs to understand the probability/impact of the risk occurring that needs to be assessed. The actions should include what needs to be done, who is doing it, and when it should be completed It is best to hold regular risk reviews to identify actions outstanding, risk probability and impact, remove risks that have passed, and identify new risks. 5.6 Conclusion of risk analysis and management As far as the risk management and analysis is concerned, The project manager have to ensure that there is a proper risk management plan for a project so as to meet its expected objectives and goals because without a plan, the success of the project, and reputation as a Project Manager, are on the line and following the above steps there will be increase in chances of project success success. EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT 7.0 PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY The project focus on cost sharing, skills, training capacity building and participatory management will ensure its sustainability. Both District and Regional Government are supportive to this proposal. The project will link in the district budget planning whereby government contributions for project support will be identified and incorporated into the District budget and annual plan. A technician from District council water department will be a focal personal in carrying out of this project from its inception to the end to ensure that after the phase out of the project the sustainability of a project is clear. ANNEXES: 1.0 PROJECT BUDGET PROJECT BUDGET THE CURRENCY IS IN USD S/N PARTICULARS YEARS 1 2 3 4 5 1 INCOME Amount is in USD Government 150000 Distribution in each year WV Australia 175000 Total Income 100000 75000 50000 50000 50000 EXPENDITURE 2 Administration cost Technician 150 Training 2500 1000 1000 2000 1000 Facilitate Training 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 Meetings 1500 1000 1500 1000 1000 Project accountant 2000 2000 2000 2400 2500 procurement officers salary 700 1200 1500 2000 2800 Salary project facilitator 2400 2600 2900 3000 5000 Total expenditure 10705 9300 9900 11900 13800 3 CONSTRUCTION COST hydro geological survey 7000 support the construction 36002 67520 18010 cost for shallow well Cement 1000 wire mesh 6 Aggregated stone 30 sand I trip 15 Tania pump 1500 cost for tube wells drilling 9000 purchasing a pump 1500 Total construction cost 56053 67520 18010 Total Overall cost 66,758 76,820 27910 11900 13800 PROJECT WORKPLAN/SCHEDULE Activity Year 1 Cost Year 2 Cost Year 3 Cost Year 4 Cost Year 5 Cost Total Cost In USD Hydrological surveys to locate potential sites. X 500 500 Constructions of shallow wells/tube wells X 700 700 Training WUGs on water sanitation and hygiene X 300 300 Conduct community sensitization on resources X 550 550 Train pump attendants on minor repair/maintenance X 225 225 Implementation X 120 120 Evaluation monitoring X 450 450 Total cost 2845 1.2 PROJECT LOGICAL FRAMEWORK OBJECTIVE INDICATOR TARGET BASELINE DATA SOURCE TIMING RESP. PERSON ASSUMPTION Goal To contribute towards improved life standard of the community Incidence of (cholera, diarrhea, typhoid) water borne diseases decreased 20% 45% Project records, Dispensary records Quarterly CO, Project Coordinator, Facilitator Adequate rainfall PURPOSE Safe and adequate water accessed by the community % of household within 400m from water source 30% 0.3% Project records Quarterly Project Coordinator, facilitator OUTPUT 1 Improved water source Number of deep/tube wells constructed Number of shallow well constructed 3 50 0 0 Project records Quarterly District Water Engineer, PC, Facilitator Activities Facilitate hydro geological surveys to locate potential site 1.2Facilitate the construction of shallow wells/ tube wells Number of surveys Conducted Number of identified potential sites Number of shallow well, tube wells constructed 2 53 53 0 0 DWE DWE Community reports Annual Quarterly PC/Facilitator Project coordinator, project facili

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Short Skirt, Long Jacket :: Personal Narrative Writing

Short Skirt, Long Jacket After stuffing my brains with knowledge of Communication, Controls, and Signal Processing and then force-feeding my eyes with 150 pages of text for my literature class, I leave the library dispirited and walk slowly home. My mind has left my body and is hovering overhead, observing me go through the simple motion of placing one foot in front of the other on the sidewalk. What seems to be an effortless action is actually a complex system of muscles, nerves, and electric impulses that culminate in a carefully rehearsed pattern, the perfected sloppy shuffle of my feet. Totally discouraged and ready to go to sleep, I enter my room and continue with my automated performance for my suspended self. The first thing I do when I get back is to take out my contacts. Since it also happens to be Sunday, I must add an enzymatic cleaner tablet to the storage solution. I do this with an efficiency that would put any clock to shame. I then drag myself to the bathroom sink and brush my teeth, returning to my room to Oxy cleanse my face. I briefly toy with the idea of wearing my retainers but decide against it and leave them to hibernate peacefully in their protective plastic yellow case. When I am done with this ritual, I indulge myself with the thought of falling asleep, but I know I have work waiting for me. It’s two o’clock and my brain is still good. I marvel at its ability to think, at its ability to perform under such adverse conditions. However, those superior skills tend to annihilate their own greatness when the part of my brain that finds ways to procrastinate continues to be productive. My blinding intelligence formulates some complex string of logic that tells me it is okay to give up, and I begin to head for bed, but then I remember†¦I have Cake. I want a girl with a mind like a diamond. I want a girl who knows what's best. I want a girl with shoes that cut and Eyes that burn like cigarettes. No, not cake the dessert, although I enjoy that also. That kind of cake tends to appear on birthdays, which is when I will consume it, but for everyday pleasure there are Pop Tarts from the vending machine.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Differences among nations affect international business Essay

This paper describes some of the ways in which social, cultural, economic, legal and political differences among nations affect international business. Specific real world examples of the described differences are also provided. Doing business in the international marketplace mandates taking into account some very hard to overlook social differences between countries. For instance, if trying to market and sell a product in a country other than where the company is based, the company must take into account the language differences for such things as packaging (Ebert, R. J., 2003), use instructions, marketing materials, web site presence, and customer care and support. A marvelous real world example of overcoming social differences in order to do business in the international marketplace is provided by the company Ikea (Ikea, 2003). Ikea does business in over thirty-four countries. Much of Ikea’s furniture requires the purchaser to assemble them. This means that all the instructions that are included with the same merchandise must be written for each of the countries that it does business in. Another example of Ikea’s adeptness at handling social differences is their website ( The company has links from their global website to translated websites for each company they do business in. There are some other, not so obvious, cultural differences as well. Such things as general consumer preferences may be very different in the target country. An example of these consumer preferences would be what is considered standard staples in the country. Another example would be shopping habits, such as time, frequency and consumer outlet type that is generally preferred (Ebert, R. J., 2003). Yet another example would be if the standard work day isn’t the same as a standard workday in the country where the company is based, this could affect such things as the hours of operation of a store-front or office. A terrific example of general consumer preferences is brought to light by McDonald’s (McDonald’s Inc, 2003). McDonald’s does business in over fifty-eight countries. In order to gain consumer credibility they generally provide to a charity in the countries they do business in. In the United States the charity that they prefer is the Ronald McDonald House, which concentrates on providing for the needs of children. In Europe the charity of choice for McDonald’s is a community  football (United States soccer) due to the heavy influence that the sport has in the European countries it does business in. There are also some other cultural differences in European McDonald’s, such as the menu: beer is served as a beverage. Economic differences are probably the first hurdles that a company will recognize while planning to support their trade in a foreign country. These differences will be extremely obvious if, for instance, the company of interest is based in a country with a Market or Mixed Economy and wishes to do business in a country with a Planned Economy. Economic differences can include things such as monetary trade rates, the country’s banking policies and government involvement in an industry (Ebert, R. J., 2003). China is a great example of doing business with a Planned Economy country (Premier Star Company, 2003). In China foreign companies can not own land, rather it must be leased or rented from People’s Republic of China. Legal and Political differences are the biggest players in doing business internationally. A government in a foreign country can determine how an outside country’s business is run in their country by controlling such things as the cost of the outside country’s company’s goods in their country by using quotas, tariffs and subsidies (Ebert, R. J., 2003). The government can also control the payroll and employee education costs as well as initial capital expenditures of an outside country’s company, by requiring that a portion of what the company sells in their country must also be produced there. This may require employing local people and possibly educating them, as well as setting up a presence, whether it is a manufacturing plant or another type of facility that is required for the company to produce it’s goods. There is also the matter of complying with the target country’s business laws and regulations. This requires that the company expand it’s legal team to include knowledge of the remote government in order to protect itself. Many things that may be legal in one country, may be illegal in another. Cuba and the United States is a good example of legal and political differences (Haar, J., 2002). A United States company can not do business with Cuba, as it is illegal in the United States to do so. References Ebert, R. J. (2003). Business Essentials. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Ikea (2003). Sweden: Inter IKEA Systems B.V. McDonald’s Inc. (2003). United States: McDonald’s Inc. Premier Star Company (2003). Rochester, NY: Premier Star Company Haar, J. (2002). Miami, FL: University of Miami

Friday, November 8, 2019

Free Essays on Babylonian Contributions

Four Main Contributions by Babylonians to Mathematics There are four main contributions by the Babylonians to mathematics. The first contribution by Babylonians was the concept of the positional notation system using a sexagesimal system. Thus they avoided having to write numbers multiple times; the decimal system shortened it. The second contribution by the Babylonians was computation using tables, which was a great method of abstraction. This gave them greater computational abilities. I.e.) they used tables of reciprocals to find the dividend easier. This allowed them, as another example, to calculate roots to a high degree of accuracy. The third contribution by the Babylonians was their development of practical geometry, as stated by Jeff Suzuki in his book, â€Å"A history of Mathematics†. The Babylonians provided clearer definitions of the formulas for areas of such shapes as pentagons, hexagons, etc. They also provided ways to calculate the hypotenuse. The final way the Babylonians contributed to mathematics was th rough providing advanced algorithms to solve more complicated problems than the Egyptians had solved. This included the ability to solve 3rd/4th degree equations, for example. Thus, in summary, the four major ways the Babylonians contributed included the positional notation, computation using tables (abstraction), geometry and advanced algorithms.... Free Essays on Babylonian Contributions Free Essays on Babylonian Contributions Four Main Contributions by Babylonians to Mathematics There are four main contributions by the Babylonians to mathematics. The first contribution by Babylonians was the concept of the positional notation system using a sexagesimal system. Thus they avoided having to write numbers multiple times; the decimal system shortened it. The second contribution by the Babylonians was computation using tables, which was a great method of abstraction. This gave them greater computational abilities. I.e.) they used tables of reciprocals to find the dividend easier. This allowed them, as another example, to calculate roots to a high degree of accuracy. The third contribution by the Babylonians was their development of practical geometry, as stated by Jeff Suzuki in his book, â€Å"A history of Mathematics†. The Babylonians provided clearer definitions of the formulas for areas of such shapes as pentagons, hexagons, etc. They also provided ways to calculate the hypotenuse. The final way the Babylonians contributed to mathematics was th rough providing advanced algorithms to solve more complicated problems than the Egyptians had solved. This included the ability to solve 3rd/4th degree equations, for example. Thus, in summary, the four major ways the Babylonians contributed included the positional notation, computation using tables (abstraction), geometry and advanced algorithms....

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Ai - Edge Of Excellence Essays - Artificial Intelligence

Ai - Edge Of Excellence Essays - Artificial Intelligence Ai - Edge Of Excellence Running head: The Edge of Excellence The Edge of Excellence Kathleen P. Munn Community College of Philadelphia Recently, the media has spent an increasing amount of broadcast time on new technology. The focus of high-tech media has been aimed at the flurry of advances concerning artificial intelligence (AI). What is artificial intelligence and what is the media talking about? Are these technologies beneficial to our society or mere novelties among business and marketing professionals? Medical facilities, police departments, and manufacturing plants have all been changed by AI but how? These questions and many others are the concern of the general public brought about by the lack of education concerning rapidly advancing computer technology. Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself. Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point (Patterson 7). The generally accepted theory is that computers do and will think more in the future. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer architecture. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1956 by a group of scientists having their first meeting on the topic (Patterson 6). Early attempts at AI were neural networks modeled after the ones in the human brain. Success was minimal at best because of the lack of computer technology needed to calculate such large equations. AI is achieved using a number of different methods. The more popular implementations comprise neural networks, chaos engineering, fuzzy logic, knowledge based systems, and expert systems. Using any one of the aforementioned design structures requires a specialized computer system. For example, Anderson Consulting applies a knowledge based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower using exotic computers or workstations. Even more exotic is the software that is used. Since there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software for the solution to the problem. An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. Neural networks have entered the spotlight with surprisingly successful results. A neural network is a type of information processing system whose architecture is similar to the structure of biological neural systems (Butler and Caudill 5). The neural network tries to mimic the way a brain and nervous system work by analyzing sensory inputs and calculating an outcome. Before it can be used a neural network must be trained. Some can learn by themselves, some require training by doing, and others learn by trial and error. A computer learns by naturally associating items the computer is taught and grouping them together physically. Additionally, a computer can retrieve stored information from incomplete or partially incorrect clues. Neural networks are able to generalize categories based on specifics of the contents. Lastly, it is highly fault tolerant. This means that the network can sustain a large amount of damage and still function. This type of system is inherently an excellent des ign for any application that requires little human intervention and that must learn on the go. Created by Lotfi Zadeh almost thirty years ago, fuzzy logic is a mathematical system that deals with imprecise descriptions, such as new, nice, or large (Schmuller 14). This concept was also inspired from biological roots. The inherent vagueness in everyday life motivates fuzzy logic systems (Schmuller 8). In contrast to the usual yes and no answers, this type of system can distinguish the shades in-between. This system provides a smart light that can decide whether a traffic light should be changed more often or remain green longer. In order for these smart lights to work the system assigns a value to an input and analyzes all the inputs at once. Those inputs that have the highest value get the highest amount of attention. Another promising arena of AI is chaos engineering. The chaos theory is the cutting-edge mathematical discipline aimed at making sense of the ineffable and finding order among seemingly random events (Weiss 138). The theory came to life in 1963 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Edward Lorenz, who was frustrated with