Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Critical thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Critical thinking - Essay Example affordable housing is housing where there is an intervention in the market through public subsidy† (2005, p.22).Other terms such as subsidized housing, attainable housing, and low-income housing can be used to mean affordable housing (Cowan, 2008). In recent years, the cost of property has grown more rapidly than incomes making it presently impossible for low and middle income earners to afford reasonable properties. First time buyers also form the group of people that is losing the most for lack of affordable housing (Whitfield, 2012). Due to this, some people have to search around for more affordable property in other areas. Sassi points out that â€Å"in the UK there is a deficit of between 30,000 and 45,000 affordable housing units being built each year† (2012, p.66). People working in high property value areas such as the South East and London are usually affected by the high prices of property. There is need for more affordable housing units to accommodate the needs of everyone, since even while housing benefits can reduce the burden that comes with housing for low income earners, the number of people in need of affordable housing is too big to be catered for through the housing benefits. The UK government has been investigating different approaches to increase the number of affordable housing, as well as planning on prefabricating parts and sometimes entire buildings to create room for more occupants. According to Sassi â€Å"prefabrication offers a good potential for creating energy-efficient housing by integrating higher levels of insulation in new construction systems† (2012, p.66). Prefabrication may be done on-site or off-site. However, off-site prefabrication carries more benefits over on-site fabrication since, in off-site fabrication manufacturing waste is reduced, while factory construction addresses the problem on construction skills shortage which is abound in the UK. In the United Kingdom, more than half of affordable housing is achieved

Monday, October 28, 2019

One Thousand And One Nights Essay Example for Free

One Thousand And One Nights Essay Authors Note: I will confess that sucked-into-video-game styled stories have always been a guilty pleasure of mine. My only complaint is that they always tend to follow the same formula. With that in mind, I am going to try and switch things up a bit with this story. I hope you enjoy it, and regardless of the feedback being good or bad, I would love to hear your thoughts. PROLOGUE By the time you are nine-years-old, you are already considered a woman. In my mothers country, you could already be married off at that age. You could live in a house with your husbands family, you could bare children, and you can consumate your marriage even before you are of a mature age. Alas, I am not nine, I am not married, and in many respects, Im not yet a woman. At least, Ive never felt that way. To be perfectly honest, Ive always felt like a child. My family may have disciplined me into being quiet and intelligent, to pray five times a day to Allah, to read the Quran and wear the hijab, and always to get good grades, but Ive always felt this longing for adventure. They wanted me to grow up quickly so I would have a future that was every bit as special and important as the ones promised to other American children. But during my studies, my mind would always wander to imaginary worlds of castles, dragons, fairies, and of knights and princesses that banded together to save the day. And that feeling would build in my chest: warm and comforting, so light that it can almost lift you off your feet, whispering promises of laughter and happiness to come. It isnt easy being a Muslim in a sixth grade class full of conservative Christians, girls with gothic make up, or boys with their pants worn so low that their underwear shows. Despite how different they all are from each other, all of them were the same in their treatment towards me. At the very least, my imagination would offer feelings of companionship. Close friends who would accept me for who I was and not for what I wore or how many times I had to stop and pray throughout the day. At least, when I had finished my homework and had the time to write and draw in my notebooks, I could return to that imaginary place of peace and happiness. And sometimes, as childish as it may sound, I would pretend that such a place existed. Then I was killed. At least, thats what I think happened. The nicest aspect of imagination is that, in your own world, there are no Islamophobes. There are no people who want you dead simply because you are Muslim. You dont have to worry about stepping into the mosque and some scary man driving a van full of explosives into the building. He wanted to take out as many Muslims as he could, and one of them was me. Everything happened so suddenly that its hard to recall exactly how it happened. I remember hearing glass shattering. The doors leading into the mosque were made of glass, so I assume that was where the van drove into the building. There was the sound of doors being broken down, or wood snapping, and then the blast. I was the closest to the wall where the explosion went off. I remember feeling something smash against the side of my head and I briefly remember the heat that followed. There was nothingness for awhile: I could not see, think, or hear anything that was happening around me. I could not feel anything anymore. The best way I can accurately describe it would be a black out. Because it happened so quickly, I did not have time to register whether or not I was dead. I reached that conclusion when I woke up here. The Quran describes paradise as a place of large trees, sweet water, and pure soil of musk. The dwellers of heaven would not feel the excessive heat of the sun, nor the excessive cold of the moon. It is a realm of magnificence. This afterlife did not fit that exact description. There were trees larger than any I have seen in this life. There was water, beautiful and sweet, with the ability to heal me if I were hurt, or provide me with energy when I was weary. There was soil so pure that flowers and plants of all kinds could grow. It was indeed a realm of magnificence, but also a realm of both wonder and ruin. There were times that were heartbreaking. There were moments where I was sure I was going to die a second death. There were moments where we would walk and walk and walk with no chance of knowing if we would ever truly reach our destination. But there were moments of happiness and laughter. There were moments where we could laugh about the hardships we had just overcome. And there was that feeling of acceptance. I had found people who did not hate me for what I wore or what I worshipped. Before I continue with my story, I should introduce myself: My name is Nasira. I was twelve-years-old when I died and woke up on the Mist Continent.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Ngugi wa Thiong’os Personal and Political Beliefs Through A Grain of W

Ngugi wa Thiong’o's Personal and Political Beliefs Through A Grain of Wheat Ngugi wa Thiong’o is a Kenyan born writer of Gikuyu descent, born in 1938 in Limuru. He attended Alliance High School in Kenya, Makere University in Uganda, and Leeds University in England. In 1992 Ngugi was honored with the Paul Robeson Award for Artistic Excellence, Political Conscience, and Integrity. He received the Gwendolyn Brooks Center Contributors’ Award for Significant Contribution to the Black Literary Arts in 1994. Currently he is The Erich Remarque Professor of Comparative Literature and Performance Studies at New York University. However, before achieving this notability, Ngugi experienced life in a colonized country. This ultimately led Ngugi to become an active supporter of Kenyan independence and Jomo Kenyatta through his writings. Ngugi’s personal and political beliefs are reflected in his novel A Grain of Wheat, which he wrote as an optimistic patriot. Ngugi has written numerous novels and plays on the politics, the corruption, capitalism, religious hypocrisy and the cultural effects of colonization. Some of his works include Weep Not, Child (1964), Decolonising the Mind (1986), and Detained: A Writer's Prison Diary (1981). To further support his political belief, Ngugi stopped writing his books in English. He called his book Decolonising the Mind his "farewell to English" (Margulis because it would become his last book written in English. In 1978 Ngugi was imprisoned for one year, without trial, by the Kenyan government after co-writing the play I Will Marry When I Want. It was during this imprisonment that he wrote the book Detained to describe his ordeal. However, Ngu... ... the elections. Ngugi does remain optimistic that one day his people will reunite and learn that change is inevitable, and one-day Kenya will achieve what its founding fathers envisioned. Works Cited Behrent, Megan. â€Å"Ngugi wa Thiong’o on the Language Question†. Online posting. 1997. Political Discourse – Theories of Colonialism & Postcolonialism. November 10, 1999. <> Margulis, Jennifer. â€Å"Ngugi wa Thiong’o†. Online posting. Spring 1996. Ngugi wa Thiong’o. November 10, 1999. <> Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Personal Interview. October 28, 1999. Ngugi wa Thiong'o. A Grain of Wheat: New Hampshire: Heinemann, 1967. "Ngugi wa Thiong'o" Encyclopedia Britannica Online. [November 10, 1999]

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Charles Dickens engender sympathy Essay

How does Charles Dickens engender sympathy for his protagonist Pip in this extract from ‘Great Expectations’? In this essay on ‘Great Expectations’, I am going to explore how the experiences of the main character Pip, create sympathy from the reader for him and how Dickens has put this across. Charles Dickens has written a gripping novel, set in his time and he has created sympathy for Pip in many different ways throughout the text. A first example of this is when Pip visits Miss Havisham’s house and meets Estella. ‘She called me â€Å"boy† so often and with a carelessness that was far from complimentary7, this shows that the way Estella spoke to Pip and that, instead of addressing him by his name, she just called him boy as if he was not worthy of his name, and he could sense that she did not really like him because of the way she said this, as indicated in the quote. This makes the reader feel sorry for Pip as Estella was very rude to him and unwelcoming, and nobody would really like to be in his position. So as well as being uncomfortable at the way Estella treats him, Pip also feels uncomfortable with his new surroundings as he has grown up with Joe and his Sister in poor, working class conditions at a Blacksmith’s forge, whereas Satis House is very different. It is rich and grand but also scary for Pip. ‘The first thing I noticed was that the passages were all dark’, this shows that Pip must have been quite frightened because of the darkness, and he was in a strange place but it is even worse that it is the first thing he noticed about the house. Pip was frightened of his surroundings as they were gothic and dark and very different, but the fact that he did know anyone at all must have also been a challenging experience. ‘At last we came to the door of a room and she said, â€Å"Go in/’ I answered more in shyness than politeness, â€Å"After you miss. † To this she returned: â€Å"Don’t be ridiculous boy; I am not going in. † And scornfully walked away, and what was worse took the candle with her. ‘ This was very uncomfortable and I was half afraid/ This long quote, from the extract shows a lot, first of all that he was very shy and uncomfortable in everyway at where he was and that he didn’t know anyone and he was also afraid. When he entered Miss Havisham’s room he was afraid again because of the very strange surroundings he entered into. ‘No glimpse of daylight was to be seen in it! ‘ this shows that it was very unusual and he was quite frightened and also when he saw Miss Havisham, ‘the strangest lady I have ever seen or shall ever see/ As well as being very strange, Pip also noticed that she was extremely rich, ‘some bright jewels sparkled on her neck and her hands, and some other jewels lay sparkling on the table/ Pip was not used to seeing such finery or such unusual surroundings so all of this makes the reader feel very sympathetic towards him. Miss Havisham’s mental state could also be a coarse for concern as, since her fianci left her on their wedding day and broke her heart she went a bit mad and stopped all of the clocks in the house and, by never touching anything in her room she tried literally to stop time at the prosiest second her heart was broken. ‘Her watch had stopped at twenty minutes to nine’ and she says to Pip ‘†What do I touch? † â€Å"Your heart. † â€Å"Broken! â€Å"‘ This experience must have been very frightening and unsettling for a young naive boy who was not used to being in the presence of such an eccentric and slightly mad old lady. Not just the fact that Miss Havisham was strange and so were her surroundings she also spoke to Pip and ordered him in a very strange and suspicious/manner. ‘†I sometimes have sick fancies† â€Å"and I have a sick fancy that I want to see some play. There, there! † â€Å"Play, play, play! â€Å"‘ This order seems rather strange for an old woman to have a fancy to see a young boy play but also the repetitive way in which she commands him to ‘†Play, play, play! â€Å"‘ She says this three times and Pip does not really know what to do so he therefore feels very awkward. After the harsh words from Estella and meeting Miss Havisham, Pip starts to feel the realisation of his low social status. ‘ This boy, why he is a common labouring boy, these words from Estella hurt Pip deeply but he did not show his true emotions until he was alone. ‘As I cried, I kicked the wall and took a hard twist at my hair; so bitter where my feelings! ‘ Dickens has displayed this very well as you can also feel a connection with him, because it is written in first person narration I, so you feel like Pip is actually talking to you, and you could imagine if you were in Pip’s position you, yourself would feel very frightened and uncomfortable so you end up feeling sorry and sympathetic for him.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Fallingwater Critque

I TLD understand the building when I first saw It's Image pop up, but with further Investigation, It grew on me. Maybe It Is because I am not an outdoorsy kind of person But the way the building Is designed, Is unique and quit intriguing. This building has many square edges, it seems basic along the outside of the building. But it is when you look at the materials used, the rocks along the exterior walls and the red paned windows and railings that seem to bring everything all together.I still am not sure if I like the way the building is put together, but it works for it's private and intimate location. It appears to have been always made for this location, the building seems almost natural. And the colors work very well together, again, all natural. Structure: The structure of the building varies with each area. There are 3 horizontal trays made up of reinforced concrete which form there three levels of the house. There are four piers, or bolsters anchored Into a boulder underneath the mall floor act as the fulcrum for the house.Counterbalancing weight to the back, or north side, of the house keep it from toppling into the stream. The cantilever, which is the long piece of concrete underneath the building is the basis for the entire structure. Materials: The materials which Frank Lloyd Wright has used to create the falling water building were very simple. He used sandstone, reinforced concrete, steel and glass. Which all the materials can be seen by loping right at the building. The building has many shapes and lines, but together it flows very peacefully.Some that re seen are pentagon, rectangle, semi-circle and squares pieces of the building. Talking about them separately, you wouldn't think they would flow as nicely. But they do work together In this setting. Context: The environment and the building all do flow nicely together. If this building was built in a rural area in a community of other rural homes, it would NEVER fit in. But this building creates t he environment and atmosphere as if it was always made to be there. It has become on with the river and surrounding landscape. It grows as the trees would grow that hover the river and building.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

History of Celtic Christianity

History of Celtic Christianity Throughout history, there have been periods characterized by renewal and spiritual hunger. At times, people have tried to further understand their spiritual life by reverting to the origins of their faith. As the second millennium neared its end and at the beginning of the third one, organized religions of the world were unable to establish the connection they had been looking for. In the present times, people have been exploring the Celtic tradition in a bid to be in touch with what they have regarded as the Sacred Divine.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on History of Celtic Christianity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For years, a collection of many books has been written in an attempt to fully understand the pre-Christian Celtic culture and history. Anthropology and archeology have gradually started to provide some useful information concerning the Celts. However, there have been many challenges presenting themsel ves when trying to understand this history and culture. One of the challenges that can be pointed out is that the process of interpreting the available literary and archeological materials can only be achieved through thorough comparisons which take a lot of time to complete. For instance, the earliest existing sources are derived from a period when the earlier practices and beliefs had been replaced by Christianity. The challenge is that scholars who try to explain the history and culture of the Celts today must document things that were stated as facts and the ones that were not stated. Many people today might think that Celts were one race but this was not the case since they were a group of societies characterized by diversity. They were different tribes living in different locations but who shared value systems and beliefs. In addition, they had common cultural roots and linguistic affiliations. The term Celtic is used to refer to ‘of or related to indo-European languages Celtic group.’ For a long period of time the term was used to make reference to everything pertaining to individuals believed to have lived in regions where Celtic languages were spoken. A hypothetical common Celtic from indo-European came into place by 1000 BC. The different tribes speaking this language became the group of people dominating Central and Western Europe by 6th century BC as it known by the Romans and the Greeks. After some years, but before the end of the pre-historic period, the language split into two. Today, there are different sources that document the history and culture of the Celtic people and which can be used to gain further understanding of the group. For instance, archeological findings reveal that the Celts were creative and skilled artisans. They produced complicated metal workings in bronze, silver and gold which exhibited their unique skills and creativity.Advertising Looking for article on religion theology? Let's see if we can help y ou! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From archeology, it is understood that the Celts also produced beautiful and useful pottery alongside wood-workings and textile. Another source of information that gives insight about the Celts is written legends and myths. These narrate different aspects of the lives of the Celts. For instance, through myths and legends, their belief systems are understood. Apart from archeological and legendary sources, there are other written sources of information available to scholars that provide some insights on the culture and history of the Celts. There are documentary texts that explain concepts like language since language has no physical manifestation. These written sources assist in reconstructing the history of the Celts. Linguistics in the sense of Celtic names also provides philologists with insightful information on where to place the language of the Celts in relation to other world languages.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Population demographic for australia Essay Example

Population demographic for australia Essay Example Population demographic for australia Essay Population demographic for australia Essay Australia has become the 52nd most populous country in the world. Population Demographics and its diversity have played a key role in shaping the very foundations of todays culture. This can be seen through the transparencies of our local communities and the different profiles that co-exist within. This critical review will examine the population demographics of the Fairfield City Council. Through a number of sources including; (Fairfield a history of the District, Geographical Research- implications for Australia cities and region, Fairfield Aged Services Survey and Fairfield City- the Community profile) this report will identify the existing frameworks of the current scene outlined in those sources, whilst also evaluating the strengths and weakness of the articles themselves. Summary- The first piece of article being reviewed is the Geographical review released from the 2010 Intergenerational report (IGRP). The paper analyses the current trends and likely directions in the population and distribution and the major implications from the nations metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, relating directly the Fairfield city area. Further to this, it also isolates and pinpoints the cause the growth is based solely and driven by the effects and causes of immigration. This is clearly shown through the ethnic diversity in the Fairfield area. McGuire and Argent (2011) Journal article further represents this. It states that 80% of the population within Fairfield is ethnic including languages of Spanish, Arabic/Assyrian, Vietnamese and English. Secondly, the Fairfield city- Community Profile released biblically on the Fairfield city council website outlines the statistics associated with the diverse population of the Fairfield city area. The Fairfield City Community Profile provides demographic analysis for the city and its suburbs based on results from the 2011, 2001, 1996, and 1991 censuses of Population. Conducted by the council, the research divides Fairfield city into smaller areas of representation and subsequently the different ethnicities, age and gender within those areas. Thirdly, the publication of Vance Georges Fairfield A History of the District was written based upon the early researches conducted in the sasss, where he accepted commission from the Fairfield City Council to examine the dynamics of the Fairfield local government. Interviews were lead to analyses the recordings of citizens of their memories within the district. In addition to this, Vance George started to write newspaper articles about Fairfield history and complied a series of notes for those seeking information about the areas past, or for students undertaking local history projects. The common theme behind all his works, proudly claim that Fairfield has the highest migrant population of any local government area in the nation, with the largest Italian, Yugoslavian and South-East communities in Australia. Finally, the Aged Services survey was commissioned and funded by the State Library of NEWS grant to discover why elder immigrant use the library less than others and how education can be increased. In an Australian and possible the worlds first the survey explored the behavior of library and non-library users in three different languages: Assyrian/Arabic , Spanish and Vietnamese. Written by income, behavioral and attitude characteristics of each demographic groups and suggestions in approving further assimilating policies within the community. Lastly, the survey shows that the 193,000 population can be broken down into three group Arabic/Assyrian, Spanish and Vietnamese. Critique- Through a sound analysis the evidence gained has identified that the population geographic of Fairfield city is a multicultural and diverse region. All four sources point out that the demographic of Fairfield is populated by immigrants from regions of the world which consist of three major groups; these groups are of Spanish, Assyrian/Arabic and Vietnamese backgrounds. The difference between all these sources is that they dont identify specific characteristics of the groups involved. The sources are not consistent with information regarding age, gender and the number of individuals that are Australian born with parents born abroad. The main ideas to why all the sources were written are to show Fairfield city as the most diversely populated region in Australia. The main aspects covered by the sources include information regarding the matter of surveys being conducted throughout the Fairfield region on how it has always been culturally diverse region. Throughout surveys conducted the information obtained has lead us to believe that it has always been a very cultural region, these surveys where done from the asses towards late 2011. Sampling is done usually because it is impossible to test every single individual in the population. It is also done to save time, money and effort while conducting the research. The sampling used by the researchers provided helps the readers to understand clearly that they have used probability sampling. Probability sampling makes sure that the reader understands that the survey conducted allowed every individual in the population have equal chance of being selected as a subject for the research, this was done so that the information obtained was as accurate as possible. The sources provided clearly show through this method they have achieved their goal of trying to show diversity inside of the Fairfield city region. Population geography is one of the most data-rich fields in the discipline. This is because most communities conduct comprehensive censuses around every ten years; this is shown in the sources provided. These contain such information as gender, age and ethnic background. In the examples provided the Fairfield city council conducted surveys between 1970 to 2011. This data is maintained by the Fairfield council and Australian Government. Population data is also available through government documents like birth and death certificates. Governments, universities and private organizations also ark to conduct different surveys and studies to gather data about population specifics and behavior that could be related to topics in population geography. As a resident of Fairfield city, I can concur with the data being provided to readers that it is convincing because all the different types of data provided in different sources provide information of the same nature. All the sources data within tables and graphs is very similar and there are no major differences within the numbers provided in their research. Conclusion- diverse in terms of different cultures living in one sector of the wide population. Fairfield city is the most populated city in Australia in terms of having different ethnic backgrounds in the one region. From when the first survey was conducted in this area until the most recent survey, a multicultural diversity has always been a major part of the growth towards Fairfield City, Multiculturalism has always played a major role in the development of the city. This is also shown in Australias immigration drive that has allowed 60% of the Australian society with migrant backgrounds. The sources that I have provided all restate the same diversity in the Fairfield city population demographic.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Writing You Can Sell on Etsy

Writing You Can Sell on Etsy For many writers, writing is not just a way to pay the bills, but also a craft and an art form. What better way to pay bills more effectively than marketing that craft and art on Etsy, the e-commerce website dedicated to crafters and artists? As a sales platform, Etsy promotes unique craft and vintage items, and good writers can offer a range of products suitable for this marketplace without needing to be experts at handicrafts or antiquing. Written crafts that can be sold on Etsy include: Customized Letters: Letters from Santa are the most popular, but other customized letters from fictional fairies and holiday characters can also sell reasonably well. Offer personalization in each letter and use colorful stationery and fonts for more appeal. Take care to avoid copyrighted items, however, such as mascots or other trademarked characters. Poetry: A thoughtful poem can be an ideal gift when paired with an inspirational or related photograph, and writers can team up with photographers to offer unique items. Other poetry options include customized cards or verses for use with weddings or memorials. Toasts: Like poetry, personalized toasts are ideal crafts that writers are in a unique position to offer. A few detailed questions can offer enough personal insight for a thoughtful and creative toast perfect for a wedding, job promotion, new ba Templates: Writers often create custom newsletter, brochure or other templates for clients, and selling customized templates on Etsy can be lucrative. Theme templates for different types of craft-oriented businesses and offer writing services along with the template for even more sales, but be sure not to offer templates that are already in use Resumes: Resume writing can be big business, and experienced resume writers can offer their craft at reasonable prices through this online marketplace. Just like templates, the resumes should be personalized and finely customized to suit each clients needs, and different general themes can be offered for different sales. Books: Novelists and book authors can take advantage of Etsy Getting started on Etsy does take a financial commitment, just as writing requires you to purchase office supplies, business cards and other equipment. Registering and buying on Etsy are free, but selling items costs $.20 per listing (listings last four months or until the item sells, whichever is first), plus a 3.5% fee on the sales price. Those costs are easy business deductions, however, and can quickly be covered with profits from individual sales. When you make your first sale, the potential profits dont stop with just the one item youve sold. Enclose a business card or promotional bookmark with each package, and include your website or blog information with every listing. Slowly but surely you will build a unique platform for your writing and will advertise your business to an unusual but no less profitable niche of customers and clients.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Juvenile Delinquency Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Juvenile Delinquency - Essay Example Cox, Allen, Hanser, and Conrad point out that delinquent and criminal behavior are part of the various human social behaviors. Thus, children learn the behavior just like the other social behaviors. As the theory suggests, teenagers are the most affected. Through conditioning were an undesirable behavior is punished and the wanted behavior awarded, one can learn any social behavior. Therefore, once a person starts to exhibit delinquent behavior, he or she can be stopped by utilizing the conditioning technique. Parents have a significant role to play in behavior modification where they guide their children to adopt socially acceptable behaviors. Strengthening the positive behavior aids in change achievement. For instance, it can be argued that the delinquent behavior of Shawn was learned from his mother. Consumption of illicit drugs in the United States including alcohol is a crime among juveniles. Despite the knowledge of the constitutional provision, Shawn’s mother introduced her son to alcohol intake.In addition to alcohol, Shawn started using other hard drugs like marijuana. Evidently, he got into a company of teenagers indulging in drug and substance abuse. He succumbed to peer pressure. At some point, Shawn and his friends were charged with robbery with violence from one of their schoolmates. This behavior might have developed over time with the increased consumption of marijuana, alcohol, and delinquent company. It is believed that he had issues with his father since he did not approve of his drug and substance abuse at his age.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Week 10 Assignment 5.2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Week 10 Assignment 5.2 - Essay Example In Asia Pacific alone, the industry is seeing a rapid growth in air travel demand. (Kollau, R., 2011) In the western part of the world, Southwest Airlines is one of the leaders in low-cost carriers. (Jones, C., 2012) The company registered a net income of $421 million in 2012 with over 3,000 flights daily. (Southwest, 2013) With the demand for low-cost air travel increasing, airline companies are coming up with ways to get their share of consumers to stay in business. Although Southwest Airlines is still earning revenue (S.D., 2011), it should not be complacent and should continue to look for ways to keep making income. One method is to acquire a bigger aircraft which could accommodate more passengers but at the same time be cost-efficient. Comparisons and projections were made between the efficiency of Southwest Airlines’ existing fleet and a new fleet inclusive of the Boeing 737-900ER, by far the biggest aircraft in the series. (Boeing, 2013) Data was gathered from the websites of Boeing and Southwest Airlines. With the inclusion of AirTran’s planes which Southwest acquired in May 2011, Southwest Airlines had operated 694 Boeing jets by the end of 31 December 2012. (Southwest, 2013) This is equivalent to a combined seating capacity of 94,310. Figure 1 shows the breakdown of airplane type, number of aircrafts per type and the seats per aircraft. The Boeing 737-900ER replaced the 737-900 between 1997 and 2003. It is the latest model in the 737 series and can carry up to 180 passengers or up to 220 passengers depending on the layout. (Boeing, 2013) Figure 2 shows the additional seating capacity of the Southwest Airlines fleet with the Boeing 737-900ER. With a significantly lower operating cost, the 737-900ER is capable of going to 96% of the route of an obsolete but popular Boeing model, the 757. (Media, 2013) The newer model has been in demand in the industry ever since its

Ethics Article Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethics Article Analysis - Essay Example imbroglio, President Obama called Wall Street bankers "shameful" for giving out nearly $20 billion in bonuses while the government bailed out financial institutions (Herald Tribune, 2009, Jan 29). Whelan, in his article, â€Å"Spirituality and the Global Financial Crisis† (2009), raises pertinent questions: How was this allowed to happen? What ideology, what policy, what abuses made this possible? Were there any warnings? And if so, why were they ignored?† The writer also argues on the ethical propriety of top CEOs amassing huge wealth amidst such epic financial crisis. On a spiritual note, society craves for joy in life. And what is J-O-Y? Jesus-Others-You: necessarily in that order. But our capitalist, consumerist approach to life, is otherwise. Enjoy has verily turned into, end-joy! The common person’s bafflement has naturally turned into anger. Questions about moral and ethical values in society are beginning to surface, especially, in the corporate arena. The financial crisis provides an opportunity for somber introspection, contemplation, and reflection on the foundations of human values on which corporate, and business edifices are built. Ethical considerations in financial management and decision making should focus on the societal and national goals. As Whelan puts it, â€Å"spirituality is living relationships. Spirituality can transform the culture and support the new economic structures and government regulations intended to foster and protect the common good.† Whilst business managers seek to maximize profit to delight investors of their companies, presumably legally, it is equally important to examine, can profits accrue by being good? Is there an incentive for being good? The reward of being good is goodness itself. It has a long term spread of happiness that only grows. Hooker candidly asks, â€Å"Business management is all about making the right decisions. Ethics is all about making the right decisions. So what is the difference between the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Adult Education in America Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Adult Education in America - Term Paper Example Adult education as a concept had undergone a systematic evolution in the history of education in the United States of America. The adult education programs are made available to the interested populations through varied avenues and are designed in consonance with the academic background and the language proficiency levels of the specific adult learners. Technology has made adult education more accessible in the current times. I am interested in the field of adult education, because it is in consonance with my personal philosophy and vision pertaining to education. Adult Education in America Since I have been actively engaged as a single parent and a full time executive, and that at present I am student pursuing a Masters in Education with a specialization in Family/Community, adult education is a concept that has always been close to my heart. It goes without saying that since I joined the 1st Class; I have emphatically come to the realization that my previous experience as a full ti me employee and a mother has aided me with ample insights as to the relevance and value of adult education in the contemporary societies. I have a deep seated conviction that in case of the adults dealing with family and professional responsibilities, adult education is sometimes not merely a viable option, but rather a chance to excel and move ahead in life. While I was pursuing my undergraduate level degree in social work, back in the early 80s, it was my innate passion and zeal to be able to help others. Now, my resolve as to pursuing a career oriented around working with families and communities, while aiding an empowering the individuals and groups through enhancing awareness pertaining to adult education has strengthened and bolstered with each passing day. Both in a present and past perspective, in the United States of America, adult education are the most potent and feasible tool to augment and upgrade the quality and potential of the local human resources. Enabling people t hrough the medium of adult education manifold enhances the possibilities as to what they know and what they can do with that knowledge, information and skills. The people who are not educated and skilled are increasingly finding it difficult not only to earn a decent living, but also to navigate their way through a system that increasingly requires them to engage in complex paper work and formalities pertaining to healthcare, social security, and everyday finance and retirement benefits. Besides, the United States of America being an immigration friendly country, with the changing demographics, things could get more stressful, if the programs oriented around adult education are not encouraged and pursued with ample zeal and commitment. Going by the fast changing technologies and the high frequency, with which people tend to change jobs, adult education is an issue that could be expected to accrue much importance, not only to enable the adults to seek access to and succeed in the nat ional work force, but also to empower them to serve as the worthy and well informed members of the society. Just because in the present context, so much stress is being laid on the education of children and teenagers, people often do tend to ignore the fact that most of the illustrious personalities in the Western history, be it Jesus, Socrates or Benjamin Franklin, happened to be the teachers of adults. It was way back in 1826, when the first lyceum at Millbury, Mass was organized by Josiah Holbrook, that envisaged the organization of the local adult study groups (Knowles, 1994). In 1911 America witnessed the setting up of The State Board of Vocational and Adult Education in Wisconsin (Knowles, 1994).

Strategic Leadership and Entrepreneurship for Dr. McDougalls Right Essay

Strategic Leadership and Entrepreneurship for Dr. McDougalls Right Food Asian Entres - Essay Example The founder and owner of Dr. McDougall’s Right Foods, Dr. John McDougall, as the chairman of the board of directors, continues to extend the most crucial influence to the thrusts and goals of the organization. As part of the management team, one’s sphere of influence encompasses â€Å"responsibility for corporate governance, corporate strategy, and the interests of all the organizations stakeholders† (Q Finance, 2009, par. 1). Through the coordination and participation of other management team members, one has relevant impact in suggesting recommendations towards the implementation of the business plan. The success of the management team is sourced from equal, fair and just collaboration and participation of all members, regardless of the diversity in responsibilities. In this regard, there is no eminent bias within the organization. With regards to anticipating hurdles, as normal as any organization operates, hurdles come in terms of external factors that are unseen, yet could influence the firms’ operations. These hurdles are increases in prices of raw materials or minimum wages for employees; imposition of additional value added taxes; or stiffer competitors, An effective leadership style is that which conforms, adjusts and adapts to the demands of the situation. One would demonstrate a situational leadership style that focuses on the capabilities and resources of the organization, in conjunction with the defined goals. Any strategy that needs to be designed must focus on the achievement objectives at the most efficient and effective manner. Any potential shortcoming is perceived in terms of responding appropriately to unanticipated changes in both the internal and external environment. One’s competencies and qualifications are the strengths that would assist in designing strategies towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. Weaknesses could come in terms of responding effectively to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Adult Education in America Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Adult Education in America - Term Paper Example Adult education as a concept had undergone a systematic evolution in the history of education in the United States of America. The adult education programs are made available to the interested populations through varied avenues and are designed in consonance with the academic background and the language proficiency levels of the specific adult learners. Technology has made adult education more accessible in the current times. I am interested in the field of adult education, because it is in consonance with my personal philosophy and vision pertaining to education. Adult Education in America Since I have been actively engaged as a single parent and a full time executive, and that at present I am student pursuing a Masters in Education with a specialization in Family/Community, adult education is a concept that has always been close to my heart. It goes without saying that since I joined the 1st Class; I have emphatically come to the realization that my previous experience as a full ti me employee and a mother has aided me with ample insights as to the relevance and value of adult education in the contemporary societies. I have a deep seated conviction that in case of the adults dealing with family and professional responsibilities, adult education is sometimes not merely a viable option, but rather a chance to excel and move ahead in life. While I was pursuing my undergraduate level degree in social work, back in the early 80s, it was my innate passion and zeal to be able to help others. Now, my resolve as to pursuing a career oriented around working with families and communities, while aiding an empowering the individuals and groups through enhancing awareness pertaining to adult education has strengthened and bolstered with each passing day. Both in a present and past perspective, in the United States of America, adult education are the most potent and feasible tool to augment and upgrade the quality and potential of the local human resources. Enabling people t hrough the medium of adult education manifold enhances the possibilities as to what they know and what they can do with that knowledge, information and skills. The people who are not educated and skilled are increasingly finding it difficult not only to earn a decent living, but also to navigate their way through a system that increasingly requires them to engage in complex paper work and formalities pertaining to healthcare, social security, and everyday finance and retirement benefits. Besides, the United States of America being an immigration friendly country, with the changing demographics, things could get more stressful, if the programs oriented around adult education are not encouraged and pursued with ample zeal and commitment. Going by the fast changing technologies and the high frequency, with which people tend to change jobs, adult education is an issue that could be expected to accrue much importance, not only to enable the adults to seek access to and succeed in the nat ional work force, but also to empower them to serve as the worthy and well informed members of the society. Just because in the present context, so much stress is being laid on the education of children and teenagers, people often do tend to ignore the fact that most of the illustrious personalities in the Western history, be it Jesus, Socrates or Benjamin Franklin, happened to be the teachers of adults. It was way back in 1826, when the first lyceum at Millbury, Mass was organized by Josiah Holbrook, that envisaged the organization of the local adult study groups (Knowles, 1994). In 1911 America witnessed the setting up of The State Board of Vocational and Adult Education in Wisconsin (Knowles, 1994).

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Critique on The Speakers Corner Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Critique on The Speakers Corner - Essay Example However, the police have endeavored to be very tolerant to the speakers and only respond in cases where they have received complaints from member of the public. At times they are forced to intervene on the grounds of profanity which involves the use of offensive language. The speaker’s corner in Britain was established as a result of the increased struggles for civil liberties and a quest for a more democratic society. The speakers’ corner has provided great opportunity for people to express themselves and have their views heard by many listeners across the global. The minority groups, who do not have any other platform to address their concerns, have benefited from the speakers’ corner since it has granted them a chance to be heard. However, the popularity and strength of the speakers’ corner has been eroded by the rapidly emerging trend of blogging and the use of other social media platforms in communicating personal views and opinions. In the current set-up, speakers’ corner is set loose its meaning and will soon become a thing of the past if the current trend is to

Monday, October 14, 2019

Hitler Was a Weak Dictator Essay Example for Free

Hitler Was a Weak Dictator Essay How far do you agree with the view that in the years 1933-39, Hitler was a weak dictator? Hitler has been categorised as a weak and a strong dictator by structuralist and intentionalist historians respectively, intentionalist for the importance of Hitler, and structuralist for the importance of those around him. Timothy Mason, a British Marxist historian, is an example of a structuralist historian, believing that Hitler was heavily reliant on those around and supporting him. There is also Ian Kershaw, who believed in the ‘Working towards the Fuhrer’ ideology, where Hitler exploited the attitudes of the German people in an attempt to have them work towards him. Timothy Mason, a British Marxist historian was certainly believed that Hitler was a weak dictator, in agreement to the question. Hitler was meant to be an all-powerful Fuhrer, being the only person who really knows what Germany and Germans want and need, yet he as Mason describes, â€Å"†¦had a preference for creating new organs of state to carry out specific projects.† If Hitler had been an all-powerful Fuhrer, he would not have required new organs to help him carry out tasks, he would have just been able to dictate and organise everything himself. This was shown in the massacre of the Night of the Long Knives This shows that Hitler in fact was a weak dictator, who did not have control over everything that happened in Nazi Germany, and he needed the support of the Nazi backroom to help him run the country. Mason also described, in about how Hitler would give jobs to other people to carry out. He realised that he wasn’t cut out to be leading certain jobs, and therefore he chose, ‘the right man for the job’. This is no more apparent than in the appointment of Goebbels as Propaganda Minister. Hitler wanted someone better than himself to arrange the propaganda appearances and meetings for himself, and Goebbels was clearly the best man for the job, as shown by his arrangement of the Night of the Long Knives in 1933, a highly successful propaganda campaign. Hitler was not capable of doing such things himself, proving that he is a weak dictator, by leaving jobs to others. Hitler was a dictator entirely dependent on his reputation, and therefore was indecisive when it came to making decisions, as Feuchtwanger describes, ‘Hitler often refused to take decisions, especially when a decision might damage his popularity†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ It was well known that Hitler’s popularity paved the way for his success, as was shown in results in General elections. However, a strong dictator would not have to worry about the decisions they made, because whilst popularity would have been a cause for concern, their position would have been so secure that worrying would not be an issue, however, in this case where Hitler is clearly agitated and worried over the support he is receiving, it shows that his position as dictator is not as strong as it could be. Kershaw writes about the central role of Hitler to the running of Germany and the Nazi system. He was the, ‘†¦focal point of the Nazi system of rule.’ Every dictator needs to be the focal point of whatever Government they are the head of, and therefore Hitler’s proving of being the front focus of Nazi rule, shows how strong a dictator he was. He was the focal point and face of every Nazi policy, such as the Decree for the protection of People and State. Hitler used communists as an excuse for bringing in new laws and he was central to the policy making and was the face of the new policy. Werner Wilkins was a State Secretary in Germany during the Nazi regime, and he felt that Hitler was neither a weak or strong dictator, but that Germany was in fact Working towards the Fuhrer. This would mean that Hitler was not necessarily important in the running of everyday politics, such as a normal dictator, but he would however let people interpret his policies how they wish. This would not lead to a weak or strong dictator theory, but a society where everyone was working towards the Fuhrer’s will. Werner says how, â€Å"†¦everyone worth a post in the new Germany has worked best when he has, so to speak, working towards the Fuhrer.† This means that everyone in the country no matter what Hitler did was working towards his will, as it is believed he is the only one who knew what Germans truly wanted. In conclusion, Hitler was seen to be a weak dictator, as he was very afraid from the real threat created by losing his popularity, which would have turned the people against him, and whilst he had still not consolidated power fully, particularly at the start of the period, he was always under the threat of being thrown out of power again. Because of this, he had to curb some of his will and policies, and any threat to his popularity was handed over to someone else, whose loss in popularity would not have affected Hitler’s personal rule.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Curcumin as an Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Agent

Curcumin as an Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Agent Several studies in recent years have demonstrated curcumin as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent  the presence of persistent inflammatory stimuli, which interrupt the physiological healing mechanisms. An ideal biomedical device for wound care should promote the complete regeneration of the injured tissue, effectively restore its  biological activity and aesthetic aspect, while reducing inflammation and preventing microbial invasion.1,2 Efforts for achieving this goal are leading to the replacement of traditional passive products with advanced ones.3 Among these, alginate-based dressings are attractive for their capability to release bioactive compounds and to maintain a moist environment around the wound, promoting tissue granulation and re-epithelialization.4-8Typically they are available in form of freeze-dried foams  or non-woven microfibers, though great research interest is nowadays devoted towards nanofibrous matrices. Inflammation is a physiological response to wounding and is required for wound healing to progress. However, excessive or inappropriate inflammation provides an ideal environment for bacterial infiltration and proliferation and may cause serious health problems. So, the prolonged inflammation characterizing the chronic wounds is a promising target for therapeutic interventions Active agents have been loaded in various of form of carriers such as foams,4 hydrogels,5 films,6 sponges,7 etc., and more recently in the form of polymeric nanofibers.3,8 These polymeric nanofibers have attracted special attention for use in wound dressings due to their very fine diameter, highly porous structure, and so on.1,9 A popular and inexpensive technique for fabricating polymeric nanofibers is electrospinning (ES).3 In particular, nanofibers produced by electrostatic spinning have high potentiality in the wound healing field because their porosity promotes nutrient transport and gas permeation, their morphological organization mimics the native tissue, and their mechanical properties can be engineered.5,9-11 The intrinsic high surface area of nanofibers is also attractive for the delivery of drugs and active agents.2,1 The large surface area of the fiber matrix allow for increased interaction with the tissue,  thereby serves as a substrate for the sustained delivery of bioactive molecules as well as to  modulate cellular functions during regeneration Nanofibers fabricated by ES have an extremely large specific surface area, high porosity, and good pore interconnectivity.10,11 These properties are very similar to the natural extracellular matrix structure that supports cell attachment and proliferation.12 It was found that active ingredients can be encapsulated directly into nanofibers by electrospinning a mixture solution containing an agent and a polymer.9,13 Because of their unique properties, the electrospun nanofibers can meet the ideal equirements for wound dressing in that they (1) promote a hemostatic phase, (2) provide a moist environment that stimulates wound healing, (3) protect the wound from bacterial penetration, (4) functionalize dressings by incorporating therapeutic agents, and (5) potentially leave no scars.1,14 The use of biopolymers capable of ES for wound dressing is becoming inevitable because they can generate safe environmental products and easily be washed of the wound surface.1,3 A variety of biopolymers such as PVA,3PLA,11poly(urethane),14  gelatin,15 chitosan,16 polycaprolactone (PCL),17 and some blends of these biopolymers have been electrospun and evaluated  for wound dressing. PCL is a semi-crystalline polymer well known for its nonimmunogenicity, slow biodegradability, and high  biocompatibility.17,18 Due to its non-toxic in nature and flexible mechanical properties, PCL is ideal material for wound dressing and tissue engineering.18,19 Although PCL nanofiber mat closely mimics the natural extracellular matrix, its hydrophobicity reduces cell attachment. addition of PEG in PCL result in   high cell affinity and porous surface of the nanofiber mats   and support cell  proliferation. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in many plant extracts [1]. Many polyphenolic compounds, including chrysin, are known to have multiple biological activities, such as anti-inflammation [2,3], anti-cancer [4,5], anti-oxidation [6,7], and estrogenic effects [6] Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone structure shown in Fig. 1), a flavonoid, is the main component of Oroxylum indicum ( Sun et al., 2006), which is one herbal medicine commonly used in China and other East Asian countries, and has been officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia for a long time (Editorial committee, 1999). Like other flavonoids, chrysin exhibits many biological activities and pharmacological effects, including antioxidant (Chaudhuri et al., 2007), anti-inflammatory (Fishkin and Winslow, 1997), anticancer (Habtemariam, 1997) and antihypertension (Villar et al., 2002). Chrysin also has the potential for clinical and therapeutic applications against the physiological and biochemical effects of aging (Chakraborty et al., 2009). In spite of these unique biological activities of curcumin, the in vivo stability and  bioavailablity of the molecule is very low Here we show that dressings constituted by electrospun nanofibers of sodium alginate containing lavender essential  oil are effective for the treatment of UVB-induced skin injuries. In vitro studies revealed that these entirely natural systems were  highly biocompatible and able to inhibit the proliferation of S. aureus. Together with antibacterial activity, the produced alginate based nanofibers expressed a remarkable anti-inflammatory efficacy that was demonstrated in vitro on lipopolysaccharide stimulated human foreskin fibroblasts, and in vivo on rodent model of UVB burns. In particular, a significant decrement of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed for both cells and animals. Interestingly, no marks of erythema were detected on the skin of the injured animals that were treated with the electrospun dressings, indicating that the treatment promptly stopped the inflammatory response. Differently from other topical preparations for the management of burn wo unds, the here described biomedical devices perform dual functions (antibacterial and anti-inflammatory) and, thus, have potentialities to fill the void of multifunctional dressings that the market is still facing The objective of this study was to develop curcumin loaded PCL nanofibers by the process of electrospinning and to evaluate  the biological activity of the curcumin loaded fibers using in vitro and in vivo methods. We investigated the feasibility of developing bead free curcumin loaded PCL nanofibers by controlling the elecrospinning parameters. The bioactivity of encapsulated curcumin in the nanofibers was investigated using various in vitro methods and comparisons were made against the corresponding PCL nanofibers. Finally, the in vivo efficacy of the curcumin loaded PCL fibers vs PCL fibers was evaluated using healing impaired diabetic mouse model. in view of the high level of oxidative stress and persistent inflammation associated with delayed  healing in diabetic wounds, the present study was conducted to investigate the temporal wound healing potential of topically applied curcuminin diabetic rats The increased oxidative stress is one of the most common complications for the delayed wound healing in diabetics [3]. Therefore, reduction/ termination of the persistent inflammation and elimination of free radicals by the introduction of an anti-inflammatory agent and antioxidant into the treatment of wounds could be an important strategy to improvehealing of diabetic wounds.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

What Makes Women Crazy in Ancient Literature? Essay -- Literature

What does crazy mean? There are a few words that must be defined in order to support my argument. Crazy is an adjective that tends to mean passionately excited or enthusiastic. However it also can mean, â€Å"mentally deranged; demented and insane.† (, which is important for the purposes of my argument because Medea is said to be crazy, but not overly excited about her situation. The next important word is mad, another adjective, and also a synonym for crazy. The last word is depressed, meaning â€Å"sad and gloomy; dejected; downcast.† ( In The Tale of Genji , I believe Murasaki becomes depressed because she loses her â€Å"spirit†. Yet she hides her real emotions. Why are these words pertinent? Well they serve a purpose to distinguish culture differences in the two works: The Tale of Genji and The Medea. The different culture backgrounds in these two pieces of literature are important because it may help readers understand; why the characters â€Å"acted† in that specific manner. Therefore, I contend that the culture differences in Greek and Japanese writers reflect directly on the female characters reaction to the situations they were forced into. To support the argument, there will be background information provided on each author, including culture and personal history. Then I will explain the differences in each culture, specifically focusing in on their marital beliefs. However culture differences may not be the only culprit for the reflection of women in literature. In The Tale of Genji, the character Murasaki was not portrayed as crazy, she was a young noble lady in courtship with Genji: â€Å"Murasaki was no busy being grandmother to the royal children†(Shikibu 1335). In today’s modern society, some Americans ... "Murasaki Shikibu C.978-after 1005." Encyclopedia of Life Writing: Autobiographical and Biographical Forms. London: Routledge, 2001. Credo Reference. 10 Sept. 2007. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. . Reid, Matthew C., and Grant Gillett . "The Case of Medea: A View of Fetal-Maternal Conflict Journal of Medical Ethics." BMJ Publishing Group. 23.1 (1997): 19-25. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. . Vickers, Brian. "Myths in Tragedy." Towards Greek Tragedy: Drama, Myth, Society. Longman Group Limited, 1973. 268-343. Rpt. in World Literature Criticism, Supplement 1-2: A Selection of Major Authors from Gale's Literary Criticism Series. Ed. Polly Vedder. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1997. Literature Resource Center. Web. 26 Mar. 2012.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Lic of India

India’s Leading BFSI Companies 2008 Life Insurance Corporation of India Yogakeshema, Jeevan Bima Marg, P. B. No. 19953, Mumbai – 400021, Maharashtra Tel: 91 22 66598547; Fax: 91 22 22817253; Email: [email  protected] com; Website: www. licindia. com History Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) was formed in Sep 1956 after the Parliament of India passed the Life Insurance Corporation Act in Jun 1956.The company was created with the objective of spreading life insurance more widely, especially to reach all the insurable people in the rural areas and provide them with adequate financial cover at a reasonable cost. Apart from its corporate office, LIC had five zonal offices, 33 divisional offices and 212 branch offices in 1956. The nature of life insurance contracts being long-term coupled with the need to provide a variety of services during the term of the policy, LIC re-organised itself by opening a number of new branch offices.After its re-organisation, servicing functions were transferred to branches which were converted to accounting units. other cities. LIC has also launched Satellite Sampark offices in order to provide easy access to its policy holders. The company had 340 such offices as on Mar 2008. LIC also provides housing finance through LICHFL. It has also formed an asset management company known as LICMF AMC. The corporation has also extended its operations to the international arena; through various JVs and subsidiaries it operates in as many as nine countries.T S Vijayan Chairman D&B D-U-N-S ® 65-005-6716 IRDA Registration No Business Segment Life Insurance Key Information (As on Mar 2007) Total Income (Rs mn) NPE (Rs mn) Policy Holders Branches Employees Agents No of Policies Issued No of Claims Received No of Claims Settled Solvency Ratio (%) Management Chairman T S Vijayan Managing Directors D K Mehrotra Thomas Mathew T A K Dasgupta 1,744,405. 7 1,277,822. 6 212. 6 2,048 113,710 1,103,047 38,229,292 13,257,345 13,258,205 1 . 50 512 Products & ServicesLIC offers a wide array of insurance products to its customers such as insurance plans, pension plans, unit-linked plans, special plans and group scheme. During FY08, the company introduced certain new products such as Profit Plus, Fortune Plus, Jeevan Akshay, Jeevan Amrit & Amulya Jeevan. As of Mar 2007, total number of agents of the company stood at 1. 1 mn while the total number of policies issued was 38. 2 mn. The premium earned by the company reported a growth of 41% in FY07 when compared to the previous year.During the year, the company insured 34. 28 mn individuals for the first time, taking the ratio of first insurance to total business to 89. 61% for number of policies. Operations As on Mar 2008, LIC had 2,048 fully computerised branch offices, 109 divisional offices, eight zonal offices apart from its corporate office. LIC’s network connects all the branches through wide area network. The company also has tie-ups with certain banks and se rvice providers to offer on-line premium collection facility in select cities.Besides, ECS and ATM premium payment facility to its customers, the company has also commissioned IVRS and information centres at Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, New Delhi, Pune, amongst Key Highlights †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ 97. 11%ofmaturityclaimsaresettledonorbeforetheduedate. InFY08,LIChassettledover13. 9mnclaims,amountingtoRs372. 06bn. ThetotallifefundofLICstoodatRs6866. 16bnasonMar31,2008. ThetotalnumberofIn-Forcepolicieswasover233mnasonMar31,2008. AsonMar31,2008,LIC’stotalassetsvaluedatRs8038. 2bn. TotalincomeincreasedtoRs2063. 6bnbytheendofFY08,showingagrowth rate of 18. 3%. 137

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Murra’s Is a Significant Work of Literature Essay

â€Å"Why is a play a significant work of literature? It is because the play presents enduring themes and ideas that continue to engage audiences.† The play Murra’s by Eva Johnson takes place between the late sixties and mid-seventies and focuses on one family and their struggle to come to grips with white Australia as they move from a fringe dwelling to life in the city This play was set at the time of the stolen-generation, which was when Indigenous Australian children were taken away from their families by British settlers and were forced to forget what little of their Aboriginal identity they knew, and live like â€Å"white people†. The ancestors of those people who were subject to the stolen generation still exist today that is why the ideas and themes that are conveyed in the play about the stolen generation continue to engage an audience particularly in Australia because the discrimination they experienced is still going on today and it might not ever go away. Throughout the play there are a number of themes and techniques showing and emphasising the treatment of Aboriginal people, how they lived, their thoughts and their opinions. The first theme displayed in the play is Gender. Gender is a social idea that creates roles and expectations based on people being either male or female. An example of gender is shown through the technique of characterisation. A significant character by the name of Wilba is characterised by the writer through dialogue and stage directions. He is seen as the dominant masculine figure of the family, greatly shown in scene one when he comes home carrying a bucket of water and food. The effect of the way Wilba is characterised emphasises the gender stereotypes that are very constant throughout the play. Another technique showing gender is costume. The women in Murra’s wear traditionally feminine clothing. For example mother Ruby comes home with a bag of dresses for her sixteen year old daughter Jayda to wear, as this is typical female attire. The expectations of the female gender are maintained through costume because what the women wear is stereotypical. Gender at the time was a significant issue, particularly within Aboriginal culture. Identity is a strong concept to most Indigenous Australians. It is a significant issue or theme in the play Murra’s. Identity is part of a link to culture. Due to government control at the time, Aboriginal identity was severely affected, illustrated by the families struggle to maintain it. Characterisation is used to show identity by the way Granny is characterised through her strong beliefs, shown in act one when she says; â€Å"Wudjella woman got different way to Gudjeri woman. They don’t have woman’s dreaming, special dance†. The effect of this is Granny is shown as a representation of the strong Aboriginal identity that the family cling to. Granny’s dying scene is another example of identity; this is shown through the technique of sound and lighting. â€Å"This is done to the music of the Didjeridu and Clapping sticks. At the end of the dance the lights slowly fade until the stage is totally black.† This symbolises her return to the earth and the traditional preparation of her body to return to the spiritual world of her dreaming. Granny’s death results in the metaphorical death of Aboriginal identity. Power is the ability to influence the behaviour of people and is a theme that is central to the play Murra’s. The characters within the play are very much affected by the power and authority that controls them, which essentially dictates the role of gender and identity of each character. One of the techniques used to show power in the play is setting. An example is â€Å"The year is 1970. The family have moved to the city.† This example shows that the government had the power to move them from the county where they were living to the city. Dialogue is another technique used to show power. An example is when Wilba says â€Å"I’m sick to the gut of their false promises of self-determination. Sick of their shit lies, their corrupt laws, their diseases and their gaols†¦ Yeah their chains, their chains.† The effect of dialogue within the play emphasises their strong opinions regarding the constant power struggle they are forced to deal with due to government control. The play Murra’s is a significant work of literature because the themes, gender, identity and power, to this day engage audiences as the issues displayed have still not been rectified and are highly controversial topics. The themes displayed are always present in society and are something that may never go away

Poorly Written Report

Example of a Poorly Written Report â€Å"Loose Bolts? † February 30, 1973 The film â€Å"Loose Bolts? † is an analysis of what became known as the Lordstown syndrome by business week magazine. Interviews with workers, foremen, and union officials in this film show how a bored and dissatisfied works turns out cars (Chevy Vega's) with major flaws. I recommend this film to anyone interested in the study of worker attitudes. – Paul Marshall, Professor of Management, Harvard Business School The filmmaker is skillful and perceptive in portraying the boredom and hopelessness of the men in this factory. † – Roberta Peterson This case involves inserting ourselves at the anus level of management who supervise approximately many workers on an assembly line at the Lordstown, Ohio, GM plant in 1972. Our goal is to come up with some meaningful differences we could have made as a foremen in improving employee-management relations at that time. Our primary goal is t o improve worker-management relationships.From Loose Bolts, â€Å"The ideal foreman could not let the people he managed know he is in agreement with them. If he is in sympathy with the people, he is dead as a foreman or as a supervisor. He’s lost the ballgame as far as conducting his job satisfactorily as a member of management. † If we read this quote and believe in it, our analysis should stop right here, it ain't worth wasting our time no more†¦. but we believe their are some things foremen could have been done to improve lots and lots of things in the plant.High management often referred to assembly line workers as idiots. In spite of this, it was not necessary for a foreman to continue this behavior and treat and refer to his subordinates as â€Å"idiots†, or treat them like dumb asses. It ain't that hard to treat people with a little r-e-s-p-e-k-t. Workers had suggestions about how to improve work performance on the assembly line, but the half-baked f oremen never passed them along to upper management. Another quote from â€Å"Loose Bolts? â€Å", â€Å"The whole plant runs on fear.Everybody's scared, from the top down. † â€Å"General Motors imported foremen from existing GM plants. General Motors thus inadvertently channeled the energies and sympathies of ambitious young workers away from the company and into union activism. From the beginning, the plant was a site of labor-management conflict. † (Joseph A. Arena, â€Å"The Little Car that Did Nothing Right: the 1972 Lordstown Assembly Strike, the Chevrolet Vega, and the Unraveling of Growth Economics†) Lee Iacoocoo CEO, Chrysler Motors

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

How and why are the Swedish and American welfare states so different Essay

How and why are the Swedish and American welfare states so different - Essay Example Welfare states can also be discussed on the basis of the state welfare. This is an interpretation of the forms of welfare being provided by the country. Analysts argue that this form of welfare is mostly evident in countries like U.S.A. where the government has displayed endless efforts, in an attempt to care for all its citizens. Over the years, U.S.A. has been rated among the many countries that have shown endless efforts in the provision of services to the country. In terms of social protection model, many welfare states, especially the ones that are in the Scandinavian regions and West Europe, protection of the citizens is provided by a group of voluntary organizations, the government, public service amongst other groups of people and individuals. Such countries that enjoy the provision of services by a group of people and organizations are regarded as welfare states. In this context, therefore, it is justified to argue that, welfare states have a wide range of meanings on the basis of various analysts and researchers. In order to understand to the concept of welfare states, it is important to highlight the issue of welfare states by evaluating welfare states. A comprehensive comparison of the policies of different countries, by analyzing the actions taken by each in these countries, welfare can be understood on these grounds. For instance, an analysis of the policies in U.S.A. and Europe display variations in countries of these regions. An analysis of the resources that are useful for wellbeing provision should be the focus on population structures of the countries. Production can be also sensible attribute in measurement of the positions welfare states are holding at the moment. Various states have various means of operating their structures that are peculiar for other welfare states. An understanding of welfare states can be made possible by c omparing the operations of various welfare states.

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Historical analysis of football contracts Essay

Historical analysis of football contracts - Essay Example The relationship between players and clubs changed fundamentally through the years. Contemporary football is caught between two very powerful concepts: the freedom of movement of players on the one side and contractual stability on the other. The international governing body FIFA attempts to provide a universal guideline on how to deal with contractual stability and international mobility. A it was shown in this research project, freedom of movement is the consequence of many social, cultural and, not at last, political developments which have caused an increase in international mobility of players in the recent past. The focus of this article centered on playing contract conditions, analysis of power determinants in the football labor market. The football labor market, as this paper will demonstrate, is a site for power contestation between football authorities and players and the ‘transformation of circumstances’ with regard to playing contract conditions throughout the history of the game is central to this paper. The paper uses agency-structure as a framework and consequently adopts the view that football players perform their labor in an occupational workplace that is governed by football’s authorities (that is, the game’s rules, governing bodies, regulating authorities and clubs). In this sense, the players are considered to be the individual agents (agency)while the football authorities are the structure whilst the power battle between the players and authorities – as part of agency-structure – regarding playing contract conditions over time is the f ocal point of this paper.

Monday, October 7, 2019

Research Methodologies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Research Methodologies - Essay Example The fundamental research aim around the proposal is to identify the major social and psychological challenges faced by adult ESL learners and how they come with these challenges. The study is meant to combine qualitative and quantitative research approaches in order to conduct an ontological and epistemological research. The qualitative section of the research will involve an attempt to identify the main challenges and issues that come with studying as an adult in an ESL programme. This will be done through the use of questionnaires, surveys and other activities to qualitatively provide some kind of insight into the main issues and problems that these persons encounter in their quest to learn English. The quantitative process will seek to gather data about the age and cultural background of learners and their performance. This will provide averages or regression as well as the correlation between learner backgrounds and their performance in the studying of English as ESL students. The study will include the collection of data from various students in the classroom who can be classified as â€Å"adults†. These individuals will be studied and the findings will be evaluated in the context of generalisability and this will form the basis for theorisation of findings. Learning is done through conceptual and linguistic constructions that describe social and cultural matters and systems (Hodkinson & MacLeod, 2010). This is because research and learning are two interrelated matters. Hence, they work together to provide concepts and theories in an appropriate framework. From the studies, qualitative research methods often comes with major problems and issues relating to bias and this causes conclusions to come under the shadow of the researcher’s opinion. Hence, the qualitative element and aspect of the research proposal being handled in this study might be influenced significantly by the subjective sentiments of the researcher.

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Argument for a Current Political Issue Research Paper

Argument for a Current Political Issue - Research Paper Example The rate of unemployment, mortgages, housing, insurance, and manufacturing, among other sectors, are some of the key areas that affect the U.S economy. The European colonization between the 16th and the 18th centuries was the root of the U.S history. In 1776, 13 small farming economies integrated themselves to form one, and they formed the United States economy (Lattimer, p7). The growth of the U.S economy was accredited to high productivity, a legal system which was supportive and the availability of a market which was large and unified. The United States economy is the world’s largest national economy. The $2 trillion difference between its GDP and that of the EU makes it the world’s second largest overall economy.The high levels of capital investment and research, the overall GDP growth rate and the moderate rate of unemployment make the U.S economy to be a mixed economy (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, Bernadette & Smith, Jessica p25). As of 2011, the GDP of the United State s was estimated to be about $15 trillion dollars with a per capita GDP of $48,328. The per capita income of the U.S is the sixth highest in the world and this makes it to be one of the world’s wealthiest nations. ... S is extremely active. In terms of market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange is the largest in the world (DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette, & Smith, 48). The economy of the U.S is controversial because any alterations to it will result to a ripple effect in the whole country. The economy determines the investment, the health care, the education system, the security of the country, and every other sector. The economy is the back bone of the country and this is the main reason why it is a political issue that causes controversy and much debate especially during election times as witnessed recently in the presidential elections. There are two parties that are involved in the political tussle of the economy. These two parties are umbrellas of the interest groups and the key politicians involved; the Democrats and the Republicans. Below is an outline of the stand that both the Democrats and Republicans have taken on the economy. The Democrat Stand On the issue of minimum wage, the democr ats support a higher minimum wage with increases on a more regular basis. The six state ballot initiative to increase the minimum wage were all passed by democrats in congress in 2006, a move that shows their support of higher minimum wages (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, Bernadette & Smith, Jessica p22). Education is also a pertinent issue of the economy. In this case, college education is the central issue. Democrats have a long term goal of providing low-cost college education that has been subsidized by the public for the purpose of lowering tuition fees. This can be achieved by increasing the state funding for student financial aid. The democrats have divergent opinions on the issue of trade agreements. The liberal part of the democrats supports globalization while

Friday, October 4, 2019

What is the value of computerized medical records for patient care Essay

What is the value of computerized medical records for patient care - Essay Example In this regard, it is claimed that computerized medical health records reduce the costs as well as the time associated with maintaining paper records (Rozenbluma et al., 2013). In addition, it is claimed that computerized medical records streamline workflow process, promotes the quality of patients’ care as well as patients’ safety (GE Healthcare, 2011; Rosen, 2010). Caffrey & Park-Lee, (2013) propagated that computerized medical records provide a significant advantage in the overall â€Å"implementation and evaluation processes† of patient health, which is the major pitfall in the traditional system (Caffrey & Park-Lee, 2013). In addition, computerized medical records are advocated to ensure more reliable and complete medical records, which in turn increases the reliability of health care delivered to the patients. Besides, data that are stored in the form of computerized medical records can be retrieved quickly, which further supports the clinical decision maki ng. Precisely stating, the benefits associated with computerized medical records are argued to be substantial to patients, clinic practices, physicians and health care service providers in the current health care industry (Healthcare IT News, 2005; Wang et al., 2003). Rozenbluma, R., Donzà ©, J., Hockey, P. M., Guzdar, E., Labuzettaa, M. A., Zimlichmana, E., & Batesa, D. W. (2013). The impact of medical informatics on patient satisfaction: A USA-based literature review. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 82(3), 141-158. Wang, S. J., Middleton, B., Prosser, L. A., Bardon, C. G., Spurr, C. D., Carchidi, P. J., Kittler, A. F., Goldszer, R. C., Fairchild, D. J., Sussman, A. J., Kuperman, G. J., & Bates, D. W. (2003). A cost-benefit analysis of electronic medical records in primary care. The American Journal of Medicine, 114,

The Effects of War on Afghan Women, Children and Refugees Public Health Essay Example for Free

The Effects of War on Afghan Women, Children and Refugees Public Health Essay INTRODUCTION Armed conflicts have been major causes of disease, suffering and death for much of human history. The fatalities, injuries and disabilities suffered on the battlefield are obviously direct effects of conflict. But there are also health consequences from the breakdown of services and from population movements. The diverting of human and financial resources away from public health and other social goods contributes to the spread of disease. These indirect consequences of war may remain for many years after a conflict ends. Both the experience of conflict itself and the impact of conflict on access to health care determine the physical health and the psychological well-being of women and girls in very particular ways. Women are not only victims of the general violence and lack of health care they also face issues specific to their biology and to their social status. To add to the complexity of the picture, women also carry the burden of caring for others, including those who are sick, injured, elderly or traumatized. This in itself is stressful and often contributes to illness. Defining Terms Gender: The term gender includes both masculinity and femininity, not just one or the other. Across continents and cultures, established gender norms and values mean that women typically control less power and fewer resources than men. Not surprisingly, this often gives men an advantage in the economic, political, and educational arenas, but also with regard to health and health care. Certainly, there are instances where gender differences hurt mens health as, for example, when greater risk-taking among young men leads to higher accident rates, or higher levels of violence between men leads to greater death and disability . But, by and large, many health professionals believe that gender inequalities have led to a systematic devaluing and neglect of womens health. Children: are those who are still under the care of their parents. Who is below the legal age. After more than two decades of war, the health of Afghanistans people is ranked among the worst in the world. More than 800 children die every day, largely from preventable diseases. Nearly 1 in 4 Afghan children will not reach his or her fifth birthday, and their mothers do not fare much better. An Afghan woman is 100 times more likely to die of pregnancy-related problems than her American counterpart. These deaths are preventable. Since the fall of the Taliban, the Afghanistan Ministry of Health has been working steadily to improve access to basic health services specifically focusing on reaching women and children. Since early 2002, with funding support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Management Sciences for Health has been working with the Ministry of Health to establish a foundation upon which a national health care system can be built and health services can be delivered within Afghanistan. The Effects of War on Afghan Children and Women Public Health War is one of the most destructive human activity. It destroys not only the physical side of a person but it degrades the human dignity. These happens to Afghanistan. Today it has one of the world’s poorest human development. Among the population of 24 million roughly 10.7 million are children under the age of 18 and half of the remaining population is women. The crisis of more than 23 years has left devastating effects on the health and well being of millions of women and children. It has killed over 1.5 million people, including more than 300,000 children. An extensive review of   social, physical, and mental health of Afghan children with an aim to depict the severity and complexity of the situation induced by war of more than a decade. Child Vulnerability Indicators in Afghanistan Series of wars and drought for more than three years have threatened the survival and existence of tens and thousands of women and children. According to a survey 60 % of Afghan children have lost their family member, and 39 percent have lost their home. The burden of poverty falls heaviest on the children, who frequently abandon education in order to contribute to family income. They work on farms, collect water and firewood and scavenge the garbage cans for food scraps. In Kabul alone, more than 50,000 children work as shoe polisher, selling fruits or newspaper or begging on the streets. More than five million people with a huge proportion of children are internally displaced. More than 6 million displaced Afghans represent the largest single group of refugees world-wide. Alone in Pakistan approximately three million Afghans have taken refuge in the last few years. Children comprise 20 % of the total number. Poverty prevails, with 80% of people living below the poverty level. Adult life expectancy is 45 years for men and 47 for women. According to the UNICEFs estimations more than 5 million people-70 percent of them women and children rely on humanitarian aid to survive. 75% of the population living in rural areas have no access to any kind of health facilities. According to the UNICEF, 2001 the total number of under five population in Afghanistan is 728049. War induced displacement and famine have forced large populations to move towards big cities in search of food and shelter. Among the internally displaced populations majority is under five, approximately 429567 in Kabul, 80930 in Logar, 126000 in Wardak, 49700 in South Parwan and 41852 are in Kapisa. Displaced populations are exposed to an unprecedented scale of disease, deaths and disabilities. Reports show that one in every four children dies before his or her fifth birthday and one in five children is born in a refugee camp. Infant mortality is 165 (per 1000 live births), under five child mortality 257 (per 1000 live births) and prospects for improving child health are still dimmer. Maternal morality is one of the highest in the world, i.e., 1700 per 100,000. Poor obstetric care and illiteracy have been proved to have a direct relation to the infant mortality. The deteriorating child health has been out of focus for decades. Repeated wars, political turmoil and disasters have left grave effects on the physical and mental health of children. Post traumatic disorders, widespread infectious diseases, malnutrition have increased the sufferings of Afghan children to an unacceptably higher level. The situation of internally as well as externally displaced Afghan children is grim. The trend of childhood mortality in Afghanistan from 1955 to 1990 has remained almost static and has shown very little improvement change so far. Neighboring countries like China and Iran, both have achieved considerable decline in the under five mortality ranging from 225 to 38 and 239 to 45 respectively while infant mortality in Afghanistan is still 165 (per 1000 live births) and childhood mortality 257 (under five per 1000 births)11. Nutritional Crisis and War injuries among children According to UN agency around 120,000 Afghan children currently face famine. Iodine and vitamin A deficiency is largely noticed. Report from Terre Des Hommes determined that chronic malnutrition remained high, with 53.7% of children between 6–59 months stunted, including 27.3% severely stunted making children more vulnerable to disease. An estimated 7.5 million children and adults are currently at risk of hunger and malnutrition. Rights of children were seriously and widely violated. Girls’ right to education and sports is still overtly denied. Socio-cultural norms put additional restrictions on women and girls. Because of the current crisis it is predicted that about 20–40 000 children could die and around 10 million people will be forced to live on US$1 a day. It certainly impacts access to health services, health allocations by the governments, access to drugs against HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria, and child health. There are currently estimated 5.3 million vulnerable people inside Afghanistan. Country’s health system performance is paralyzed and extensively damaged during the war on terrorism. None of the children growing up today in Afghanistan has ever known peace. It is estimated that over 2 million Afghans suffered from mental health problems. UNICEF-supported study in 1997 found that the majority of children under 16 years in Kabul suffer from psychosocial war trauma. Ninety-seven per cent had witnessed violence and 65 per cent had experienced the death of a close family relative. Experts say that approximately 30%–50% of a population undergoing violent conflict develops some level of mental distress. There are estimated 10 million land mines, the equivalent of roughly one for every child. Reported by Save the Children survey, 85% of all unexploded ordnance (UXO) victims were children in Kabul, during the years 1990-94. Alone 3,000 injuries from landmines and UXO in 1999 have been reported. More than 130,000 Afghans under the age of 18 have been killed by land mines so far. Disease Profile Measles, cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, meningitis, hepatitis, typhoid, childhood respiratory infections, and diarrhea are the major killer diseases. Diarrhea alone causes the death of 85,000 under five children per year. Two to three million malaria cases with 6% P. falciparum were notified to the health authorities in the last few years. Similarly leis mania affects seriously women and children in Afghanistan. Immunization coverage is profoundly low. Lastly noticed overall mortality due to measles and related complications was 10.8% in Kabul. In South Asia, over 40 percent of the total confirmed cases of polio occurred in Pakistan and Afghanistan in 2000. The mass migration of Afghans to Pakistan and to other neighboring countries has posed serious threat to the global polio eradication program. Moreover a tuberculin survey in Pakistan revealed that the prevalence of tuberculosis infection was 13.8% (May 1985) in a sample of 4108 Afghan children (average age of 8 years). Thirty-three percent had not received their BCG vaccination. A survey during the 1990–94 on cancer reported 22 % prevalence of 1655 children. 69% were males, 31% females Afghan refugees referred to the cancer hospital in Northern Pakistan. The Afghan Women In recent years more and more societies all over the world have begun to recognize the vital contributions of women to commerce, their communities, and civic life. Whether it be Afghan women voting in a presidential election or women starting micro-businesses in Ethiopia, the worldwide trend toward greater equality is clear. Yet the denial of womens basic human rights is persistent and widespread, as a 2005 United Nations Population Fund statement put it. ON DECEMBER 13, 2003, 502 members of Afghanistans constitutional Grand Council, or loya jirga, met in the capital, Kabul, to begin writing the document that would henceforth shape governance of an Islamic, representative democracy. Three weeks later, after at least two rocket attacks near the councils meeting place and even more explosive politicking among the councils members, the council emerged with a new constitution. Among those who watched the process with attention were Afghan women and their activist partisans in other parts of the world, who wanted the new constitution explicitly to reflect the rights and needs of women. They had particular reason to worry that the assembly gathered in Kabul would be hijacked by conservative extremists who would interpret womens rights narrowly using religion as an excuse, or who might eliminate mentions of womens human rights altogether. The Grand Council met just two years after the United States toppled the Taliban, the extremist party that had been in control of Afghanistans capital since 1996. The American objective was to destabilize a regime that had given refuge to Osama bin Laden and the leaders of Al Qaeda, whose bases were in Afghanistan. At that time, the United States linked its military agenda in Afghanistan with the need to liberate Afghan women from oppression. As First Lady Laura Bush put the matter in a national radio address in November 2001, The brutal oppression of women is a central goal of the terrorists. Long before the current war began; the Taliban and its terrorist allies were making the lives of children and women in Afghanistan miserable. The first lady went on to assert that the removal of the Taliban from power would mean the liberation of Afghan women. For the next year, Afghan women were big news: There were books and reports, and pictures on the front pages of newspapers showing formerly illiterate women learning to read. Women began the work of reconstructing their lives by returning to the streets, to school, to work. Then the war in Iraq began, and Afghan women, and Afghanistans reconstruction, became old news. By the beginning of 2003, warlords in provinces who had been allies of the United States when it went to war against the Taliban were instituting measures themselves that were reminiscent of the Taliban era. Human Rights Watch reported in January 2003 that in the Western province of Herat, girls and boys would no longer be permitted to go to school together. Because most teachers are men, the ruling effectively shut girls and women out of an education. Other restrictions against interactions between the sexes were imposed; girls or women seen in public with a male might be taken against their will to a hospital to check for their chastity. These alarming trends coincided with a sharp drop in international scrutiny, although Afghan women themselves continued to seek access to good health, higher education, and equal pay for their work. Their experience in the last two years has made it clear that simply removing a dictatorial regime and installing a democracy does not automatically guarantee womens rights. Indeed, the challenges facing womens effort to make sure their rights are legally enforceable in the future highlight broad conflicts in Afghanistan between conservative and liberalizing factions of the future government and between forces competing to control interpretations of Islam in the public sphere. Islam is the prism through which human rights are articulated in Afghanistan, and it is it is therefore crucial for women that their rights to education, work, and freely chosen marriages be articulated in its terms. The importance of the relationship between Islam and rights is one supported by women. Indeed, Ninety-nine percent of Afghan women are Muslims, and their faith is extremely important to them. Most feel their rights are available to them through Islam, says Masuda Sultan, the spokesperson for Women for Afghan Women (WAW), a New York City-based grassroots organization of Afghan women and their supporters. Sultan explains that the number of women who frame their rights in secular terms is much smaller. Womens rights doctrine that would take Islam into account was in evidence in the making of the Womens Bill of Rights, authored in September 2003 by a representative group of 45 women who found ways to interpret relevant Islamic edicts in ways that amplified their human rights. The bill of rights was the achievement of a unique conference on women and the constitution sponsored by WAW. Organized with the help of the Afghan Womens Network and Afghans for Civil Society, the Kandahar conference brought women together to deliberate over how their rights could best be reflected in the constitution. Kandahar, unlike the more liberal capital, is one of Afghanistans most conservative provinces, and it was unclear until the day of the conference whether it would be secure enough for the gathering to take place. It was, but only under heavily armed guard. The conference participants comprised elite female decision-makers as well as largely illiterate everyday women from all over the country. For some, simply completing the trip, whether alone or in the company of a male relative, was itself a triumph. Over the course of three days, these women reviewed the 1964 constitution on which the 2003 draft was based and began composing the 16-point bill of rights, framed by the demand that the rights be not simply secured in the constitution but implemented. Some of the demands are basics on the menu of modern human rights: women require mandatory education, equal pay for equal work, freedom of speech, and the freedom to vote and run for office and to be represented equally in Parliament and the judiciary. But other points are specific to the situation of Afghan Muslim women and responsive to the recent forms of deprivation imposed by the Taliban and long-standing excesses based on tribal convention. There is, for example, the demand that women and children be protected against sexual abuse, domestic violence, and bad-blood price when one family compensates a second for a crime by giving them one of the familys women. There is a request for the provision of up-to-date heath services for women with special attention to reproductive rights. Under the Taliban women were denied healthcare by male doctors, who were not allowed to touch the bodies of women to whom they were not related, and severe restrictions on womens movements made it difficult for female doctors to supply healthcare. Women made it clear they wanted the right to marry and divorce according to Islamic law. At the end of the conference, the document was presented publicly to President Hamed Karzai, and women were promised that their rights would be incorporated explicitly into the new constitution. However, when the draft constitution was released in November 2003, there was no explicit mention of womens rights. Instead, the constitution granted rights to all Afghan citizens. As Ritu Sharma, the co-founder and executive director of the Womens Edge Coalition and Afifa Azim, the director of the Afghan Womens Network, argued in a joint editorial on the eve of the councils meeting, lumping together men and women in the text of the constitution, rather than clearly designating rights for women as well as men is an important distinction because Afghan women are not issued the identification cards given to men. Therefore, some men argue, women are not citizens and entitled to equality. A crucial question at the Grand Council was whether women would be identified separately from men in the final constitution. It was a triumph when the constitution that was released contained an article stating that The citizens of Afghanistanwhether man or womanhave equal rights and duties before the law. At the same time, other challenges remain. The introduction of womens rights to the national political agenda cannot itself be taken for granted while control of the country is still in question. Although it is true that on paper, the government of Afghanistan is headed by President Karzai and moving toward democracy along well established lines such as the creation of a constitution, the actual situation in many parts of the country do not reflect this shift in power. The Taliban have reasserted power in Southern and Eastern parts of the country. Indeed, in the few days leading up to the meeting of the constitutional Grand Council, coalition forces waged their largest attacks to date on Taliban members who threatened violence against the proceedings. As a recent Amnesty International report also noted, Northern Alliance commanders who committed human rights abuses under the Taliban government now hold government positions themselves (the October 2003 report, Afghanistan: No one listens to us and no one treats us as human beings. Where these commanders govern, womens movements remain as restricted, or nearly as restricted, as they did before they were liberated. So, one of the threats to womens rights is related to the ongoing danger to the entire nations stability as well as to the ability of the most conservative or militant actors in Afghanistan to influence the political process. Extremists exploit claims to Islam to intimidate women. This means that although women themselves frame their rights in terms of Islam, they can also be intimidated into making claims for interpretations that dont serve their needs at all. Sultan explains: Security is still a huge issue, and regional warlords and extremists are around. A woman who doesnt speak in terms that acknowledge Islam will face trouble. The affirmation of being Muslim is important because otherwise theyll be called infidels or be threatened or seen as secular or non-Muslim. in the view of Sultan and others who work closely with Afghan women, is to promote the education of women in Islamic law and history so that they can express their own rights as well as refute interpretations that do not serve them. As the legal system begins to hammer out laws that confirm the bases of the constitution, such knowledge will be increasingly important. Jurists are qualified in Afghanistan through higher education or training in Islamic law. As Sultan notes, these qualifications leave open the door for those trained informally by radical Islamist clerics to shape law. Womens education in the language, tradition, and law through which they understand their rights and themselves is a practical and necessary step in this context. This may appear counterintuitive to onlookers in the United States and Europe, whose recent revolutions in rights have often taken place in social and political contexts that opposed democracy to religion. Enhancing the rights of women by encouraging their access to religious education may also seem counterintuitive in the present media environment, which is saturated by the idea that Islam is inherently undemocratic. But women working for their rights in Afghanistan make it clear that both Islam and democracy are evolving practices that permit competing interpretations. It is their right to shape both in ways that confirm their identities as women, Afghan citizens, and Muslims. The needs of women and children; Refugees in Iran Since at least the 1970s Afghans have been coming to Iran, some in search of work, others to seek protection. The political dominance by the Taliban since 1995 has been a significant factor in the acceleration in the flow of refugees. Refugees who came in the 1980s were given green cards’ which entitle them to live and work in Iran, and to benefit from schooling and health care. In the early 1990s the government’s policy towards refugees changed in the face of the worsening domestic economic situation. After 1992 the authorities stopped issuing refugee cards. The vast majority of Afghans who arrived in Iran since 1992 are considered illegal and have no right to asylum. Furthermore, between 1992 and 1994 many thousands of refugees lost their legal status in a systematic campaign of confiscations of green cards from Afghans living in Khorassan province (bordering Herat). It is not uncommon to find families who repatriated under the UN-sponsored programmed in 1996 and 1997, who have returned to Iran because of hardship or fear of persecution. These families had to give up their refugee cards when they repatriated and now live as illegal’ refugees who risk being arrested if found. In such a situation it is extremely difficult to keep accurate figures on the number of refugees in Iran. According to recent official figures, there are about 1.4m Afghans in Iran at present, of which only 22,000 (1.7 per cent) are living in camps. The vast majority of Afghans live integrated into Iranian society scattered around the country, mostly in cities where they can get jobs but also in villages and settlements in rural areas. The refugees areas are Kerman, Shiraz, Sistan- Baluchistan, Mashad, Teheran and Shahriyar (Teheran province). The area in which refugees face the most difficulties (in the south- eastern province of Sistan-Baluchistan), and highlighted the neglected issue of child labor. The most common types of work done by women and children and the income they earn. Work done at home includes shelling pistachios, cleaning wool, making brooms, cleaning saffron, making chains and carpet weaving. Children usually start work at an early age (sometimes as young as five years old). Once they reach school age, those who can get into school study about four hours a day at school and work between four and ten hours every day. Many Afghan children attend schools not formally recognized by the Ministry of Education and run by the Afghans themselves. There are at least 10 informal Afghan schools in Mashad and about 24 in Teheran, serving from 50 to 500 children each. NGOs such as Ockenden Venture and Global Partners have been supporting such schools for over a year now with their own funds and some funding from UNICEF. They have provided books and teaching materials, and have conducted eye tests for children and provided spectacles. Ockenden Venture has also organised some teacher training. MSF France has been carrying out a school health project in Mashad, and a local Afghan NGO (Relief Committee for Destitute Afghan Refugee Families) is helping to identify Afghan schools in Teheran and distribute books. Many questions remain unanswered as to why some children attend these schools and others do not. Aspirations versus reality The aspirations of Afghan women and children contrast heavily with the reality of the back-breaking, repetitive and poorly-paid jobs. The reasons for taking poorly paid and low-skilled work are illiteracy, being undocumented, having children to look after, and opposition from the husband or his family. The work has to be part-time, home-based and not requiring a green card’. One obstacle which the women identified also suggested its own solution. They said that their lack of familiarity with Iran, and particularly with job opportunities, means that they tend to take on the same jobs that other Afghan women are already doing. It was suggested that a job-search service would enable them to access information on other job opportunities. Education: the top priority Having seen the poverty of many refugee families at first hand, Afghan women needs to put income-earning opportunities as their top priority. In fact the top priority identified by almost all the groups was education: for the Hazaras it was education in general, but especially literacy; for the Pashtun women it was skills- training. They all believed that they could improve their own lives if they had some education. Solutions The impact of previous conflicts and recent war on children’s social, physical and mental health is enormous and needs a great deal of attention and commitment from the Government. While the debate of reconstructing Afghanistan is currently in progress, saving the future of nation and child health development must be a top priority. Joining these efforts, international assistance is direly needed to handle the deteriorating child health situation. Improving child health in Afghanistan is certainly a daunting task and will require committed and holistic efforts over period of years. Every aspect of child health needs to be dealt with an appropriate strategy. As evident from the facts that infectious diseases and war induced injuries contribute heavily to the current burden of disease, deaths and disabilities in Afghanistan. Therefore WHO’s strategies need to be universally adopted in the country. The strategy of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) addresses five major killer diseases with a simple and cost effective manner. War has left tens and thousands of orphans. Fewer than five children currently make a large proportion of Afghan’s population and immediate attention. In the prolonged period of war tuberculosis control program was severely disrupted. Tuberculosis control network need to be immediately restored, drugs provided with the Directly Observed treatment; short course (DOTS) strategy among internally displaced and non-adhered patients. All interventions need to focus equally on providing rehabilitation and treatment for mental illnesses, robustly expand and include program for massive immunization in their essential package of services. All legal measures need to be taken to protect children’s rights and specially that of girls to education, health and social choices at all fronts. For Refugees Using focus group discussions in the context of understanding the problems and aspirations of urban Afghan refugees has given us a great deal of information to which we did not previously have access. In particular, the fact that the refugees were able to participate in drawing up recommendations regarding the future work of NGOs was a very positive experience. It encourages the beneficiaries themselves to think about their situation and to come up with solutions. It also gives the organisations working with refugees a much clearer picture of the hopes and fears of a refugee community. Past experience at ICRI has shown us that involving the refugees themselves in decision making improves the implementation process, bringing about better results. This does not mean that one method should replace the other, but rather that the methods should be regarded as complementary. We know that the single most important factor which determines the living conditions of refugees in Iran is their legal status. In Afghanistan Samar   bring to the forefront the health and human rights challenges that face Afghan women and children. A leading authority on these issues in her country, Samar founded the Shuhada Organization in 1989 to implement innovative programs in health, education, construction, and income generation that improve the lives of women and children in Afghanistan and those living as refugees in Pakistan. The Shuhada Organization has grown to become the largest female-led non-government organization in Afghanistan and operates an extensive network of hospitals, clinics, schools and shelters as well as numerous other programs and services for women and children. â€Å"Boston University is honored to host Dr. Samar as a visiting scholar,† said Gerald T. Keusch, M.D., associate dean of Global Health, BU School of Public Health, and director of the Global Health Initiative. â€Å"Her work to improve the lives and healthcare for Afghan women and children under extraordinarily difficult conditions has made her an icon in global health and her efforts will ideally lead to new policies that will advance the country’s medical and education infrastructure.† The recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the 2004 Jonathan Mann Award for Health and Human Rights, Samar is an international symbol of the steadfast courage required to demand basic human rights for women and children in Afghanistan. In addition to directing the Shuhada Organization, Samar served as the country’s first Minister of Womens Affairs during the interim government, leading the effort to restore economic, political, legal and social rights to women. In her current role as Chair of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission, she oversees the conduct of human rights education programs across the country, implementation of a nationwide women’s rights education program, and monitoring and investigation of human rights abuses. The Global Health Initiative at Boston University was established to promote multi-disciplinary research, education, outreach and policy studies across and beyond the Boston University community, and to contribute to reducing disparities in health through the generation of new knowledge, the education of students as â€Å"global citizens,† and the development of partnerships with global health leaders, scholars, and practitioners around the world. In Afghanistans villages, provincial centers, and Ministry of Public Health; in clinics, hospitals, and pharmacies; in classrooms, workshops, and training centers—REACH is empowering the Afghan people to rebuild a health system damaged and neglected during more than two decades of war. A community health worker teaches a mother in a rural Afghan village how to care for her sick child. A young woman improves her literacy level to qualify her for midwifery training. An Afghan midwife attends refresher training about safe motherhood. A provincial health team develops an immunization campaign to protect children against common diseases. The Afghan Ministry of Public Health develops management systems and standards to improve service delivery. Over seven million men, women, and children have access to primary healthcare services. Increasing access to Afghan health services thru (REACH) Through a performance-based grants program and technical support for training and education, REACH has enabled expansion of Afghanistans child health, maternal health, basic obstetric care, and family planning services now accessible to 7.1 million people. REACH grantees have trained over 5,000 community health workers who are working in 14 of Afghanistans 34 provinces. Providing health education in Afghanistan REACH promotes health education and behavioral change that is improving the ability of individuals, families and communities to protect their health. REACH also provides health-based accelerated literacy training to qualify young women to enter nursing and midwifery schools. Strengthening health systems Working with the Afghan Ministry of Public Health to develop and implement national health policies, standards, and management and information systems, REACH is helping Afghanistan shape its healthcare system for the future. Through close collaboration with counterparts in Afghanistan and with the international donor and nongovernmental community, REACH is addressing immediate needs while ensuring that current activities are consistent with long-term development objectives. References: Armstrong, J., Ager, A. (2005, March). Perspectives on disability in Afghanistan and their implications for rehabilitation services. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28, 87-92. Cultural Orientation Project. (2002). Afghanstheir history and culture. Retrieved October 20, 2004, from Cummins, C. (2002). The front linenursing refugees. Journal for Community Nurses, 7(1), 7. Daly, C. M. (1999). The paarda expression of hejaab among Afghan women in a non-Muslim comunity. In L. Arthur (ed.). Religion, Dress and the body, Oxford: Berg. Disability World. (n.d.) Epilepsy in the Afghan Village. Retrieved October 11, 2006, from Farella, C. (2002). Far and away: RNs give safety, solace to Afghan refugees. Nursing Spectrum, 6(9), 36-7. Gerritsen, A. A. M., et al. (2006). Physical and mental health of Afghan, Iranian, and Somali asylum seekers and refugees living in the Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Physchiatric Epidemiology, 41(1), 18-26. Ghatrifi, D., Ghatrifi, R., Eivazkhani, S., Ghatrifi, M. (2006). Research on sexual and reproductive health and rights beliefs and traditions among Afghan refugees. Journal of Sex Research, 43(1), 18. Giger, N. J., Davidhizar, R. (2002). Culturally competent care: Emphasis on understanding the people of Afghanistani Americans, and Islamic culture and religion. International Nursing Review, 49(2), 79-86. Grima, B. (n.d.) Women, culture, and health in rural Afghanistan. Expedition, 44(3), 34-39. Halimi, K. M. (2002, February). Afghan refugees: The ugly truth. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 39(2), 200-2. Kemp, C., Rasbridge, L. (2004). Afghanistan. In C. Kemp and L. Rasbridge (Eds.), Refugee and immigrant health: A handbook for health professionals (pp.83-90). New York: Cambridge. Lindgren, T., Lipson, J. G. (2004, April). Finding a way: Afghan womens experience in community participation. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15(2), 122-130. Lipson, J. G. (1993). Afghan refugees in California: Mental health issues. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 14(4), 411. Lipson, J. G., Hosseni, T., et al. (1995). Health issues among Afghan women in California. Health Care for Women International, 16(4), 279-286. Lipson, J. G., Miller, S. (1994). Changing roles of Afghan refugee women in the United States. Health Care for Women International, 15(3), 171-180. Lipson, J. G., Omidan, P. A. (1996). Ethnic coalitions and public health: Delights and dilemmas with the Afghan Health Education Project in northern California. Human Organization, 55(3), 355-361. Lipson, J. G., Omidian, P. (1992). Health issues of Afghan refugees in California. The Western Journal of Medicine, 157(3), 271-286. Lindgren, T., Lipson, J. G. (2004). Finding a way: Afghan womens experience in community participation. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15, 122-130. McCaw, B. R., DeLay, P. (1985, August). Demographics and disease prevalence of two new refugee groups in San Francisco: The Ethiopian and Afghan refugees. Western Journal of Medicine, 143(2), 271-275.