Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Impact of State Aid on Aer Lingus Essay

Aer Lingus is an airline in the republic of Ireland with a rich history that spans for a period exceeding 66 years. It’s an airline that is thought to hold a very special place in the hearts of most Irish people. In recent times, the airline has experienced difficulties. For example, there were agricultural problems both in England and in Ireland due to the emergence of BSE and Foot and Mouth disease. These are problems that caused the numbers of passengers traveling to various countries to go down. In 2001, workers were in strike due to salary issues and this adversely affected the operations of the Aer Lingus. Global economic crisis emanating from the most powerful economy in the world, the United States together with the September 11 terrorist attacks made many holidaymakers and seasoned passengers to panic and they thus feared traveling. Moreover, lack of funds has been another major problem and this is something that made Sabena and Swissair to close down because of insufficient funds. In fact, this is a problem that was so dangerous to many organizations that even Sabena had gone bankrupt. Due to such events, the major debate has been whether to provide state aid to Aer Lingus or not. The EU has been in the frontline to state that there is no need for the airline to be provided with state aid. On the other hand, some believe that since the government is a shareholder in Aer Lingus it should then use some of the tax payers’ money to inject more cash into the company to save it (Mulcahy, 2002). Since this is a state owned airline, its dependence on aid to raise capital has creates several problems for it. The financial performance of the airline has been undermined for quite a long period of time due to this dependence. However, in comparison to the private sector, state aid in most cases involves writing off the debts to financial institutions like banks. If it were the private sector on this issue, they would not have taken the consideration that such debts may be written off. The idea to use state aid for Aer Lingus may be seen as a bad option. This is so because if it was a private investor at Aer Lingus and they encountered huge debts, such an investor would have considered liquidating the airline and starting all over again using the available assets. But this has not been possible for Aer Lingus since its dependence is on the state to provide it with aid (Doganis, 2001). In 1994, the European Commission sought to approve the guidelines on evaluation proposals relating to state aid for airlines. Approving of the aforementioned proposals would see several conditions being imposed. For example, by relying on state aid, Aer Lingus is going to face the condition that it mustn’t expect additional aid in the coming future. Moreover, state aid according to the commission is not supposed to be used in any way to increase Aer Lingus capacity that may be to the detriment of EU competitors. Moreover, if Aer Lingus obtains this aid, the offer it has in the EU market is not supposed to increase faster compared to overall traffic growth. Aer Lingus is also not supposed to use the state aid to increase its direct competition against other airlines (Doganis, 2006). The impacts of state aid on Aer Lingus did not come with negative effects alone as aforementioned. There has been a success story to tell after state aid that was approved by the EU in mid 1990s. Even though reconstruction success at Aer Lingus took longer compared to Iberia and Air France, cost-cutting was achieved in years 2002 and 2004. State aid that Aer Lingus had received a decade ago had enabled it to survive most crises of that time. Up to early 2005, Aer Lingus still had not been privatized despite the crisis. Early 90s posed problems for Aer Lingus that are still similar to the current problems. The company lost profits amounting to 7% and talks embarked to seek a merger with Ryainar but this did not bear fruits. The management team came up with a recovery plan but the profits realized were still down. This is a problem that continued in 1992 but the appointment of Bernie Cahill as the board chairman saw the government provide more investment in the airline. After the proposal was accepted by the EU, some assets like the computer company and hotels were sold. By 1995, the company realized some profits. These shows the impacts of the state aid on Aer Lingus have been both positive and negative. But for Aer Lingus to survive in the market state aid is required since today, it estimated that the company is losing $2m in a single day. Moreover, the bookings have gone down by a staggering 80% (Barrington and Sweeny, 2001).

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Electronic Medical Records vs. Paper Charting

Electronic Medical records vs. Paper Medical Charts By: Diedre Fitzgerald Rasmussen College Summer 2012 English Composition; Professor Pauley Electronic Medical records vs. Paper Medical Charts It is no secret that the medical profession deals with some of population’s most valuable records; their health information. Not so long ago there was only one method of keeping medical records and this was utilizing paper charts. These charts, although still used in many practices today, have slowly been replaced by a more advanced method; electronic medical records or EMR’s. The manner in which information is currently employed in healthcare is highly inefficient, which slows down communication and can, as a result, reduce the emergence and discovery of problems. Accelerating communication and the use of information creates new opportunities to improve healthcare, but also new opportunities for problems to occur† (Ethan, Norman, Prashila, Samuel, 2011, p. 3-4). Although t hey are very reliable, paper medical records are becoming a thing of the past while electronic medical records are among one of the new advancements in our technologically savvy world.Both paper charts and EMR’s ultimately give clinicians and patients the same result but the journey is far from similar; A paper free work environment was once something to only imagine but in our present day is this new age technology exactly what we imagined? Paper medical records are something that most anyone who has been in the medical field for more than a few years are familiar with. This method of patient charting is very cut and dry and keeps true to its form of being a reliable source of information on a patient.According to the Law and Contemporary Problems Journal, the main function of paper medical records is to serve as a container or storage device that is occasionally opened to add new information while at the same time, preserving an authoritative method of treatment (Ethan, Nor man, Prashila, Samuel, 2011). Another essential need when dealing with any kind of medical record is security. While paper charts only consist of ink and paper they provide a sufficient amount of security because they are hard copies of raw data that cannot be hacked into and/ or ccidentally viewed by the wrong eyes unless someone physically has the chart in their hands. On the other side of the spectrum is a relatively new concept; electronic medical records or EMR’s are booming in many areas of the medical field. EMR’s do much more than just keep records. Electronic health records (as they are sometimes referred to) or â€Å"EHR’s, have a wide range of information and communications technology (ICT) capabilities. EHRs do not simply provide the user with a larger and more convenient record; they provide a record that is continuously linked to other sources† (Ethan, Norman, Prashila, Samuel, 2011, p. 8). There are endless possibilities when it comes to EM R’s. According to many health care professionals, one feature about everything going electronic is the fact that any chart can be accessed at any time by anyone who is allowed access to it, therefore, eliminating the need to wait around on charts to be used by doctors, nurses, therapists etc. â€Å"EMR’s make my life so much easier, I do not have to wait for a doctor to finish dictating in the patients chart to start what I need to do with the insurance portion† (Olivia Widner Pre services coordinator, US Oncology, 2012).In the March issue of Massage Magazine, author Brandi Schlossberg (2012) discusses the enthusiasm about going â€Å"paperless† within different massage practices. â€Å"Going paperless is the best paper decision you can make, and it's something all of us can do to make a difference,† said Timonie Hood (2010), zero waste coordinator with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Pacific Southwest. â€Å"Going paperless elimi nates all the environmental costs and impacts associated with paper† (Schlossberg, 2012, p. 46).Not only are EMR’s the â€Å"green† option between the two but they also take up less space, require less staff to process paperwork, can be backed up on a hard drive to ensure an extra blanket of security and keep the files safe with protection. Just as with paper medical charts, security of the information is an issue to a lot of people and in its own way EMR’s take precaution in keeping people out of the charts that should not be there. Almost all EMR programs are equipped with password protection. Although EMR’s may be taking over the medical world, paper medical charts emain the most well recognized form for keeping medical records. There are however some things within paper charts that some medical personnel might argue make it a primitive aspect of the medical field. One argument in itself is that the abundance of paper that is utilized in paper ch arting doesn’t stand up to the â€Å"green† society we aspire to live in today. â€Å"Paper charting used to take so long, the papers would always get unorganized, they took up so much room in the nurses’ station and the worst was waiting for a doctor to finish with a chart so I could chart what I needed to† (Brittney Guggino LPN, 2012).Another acknowledged concern with paper medical charts is the illegible handwriting of clinicians, which is a common, longstanding problem. Being unable to read orders clearly creates an added risk when dealing with patients treatments, medications etc. Paper charts may be familiar but they come with many downfalls and it’s these downfalls which may sway a person’s decision in the opposite direction in regards to the keeping of medical records.Just as with any new advancement in our hi-tech world, EMR’s have some kinks that need to be worked out and in a lot of cases just dealt with. The cost of implem enting and maintaining an EMR system is significantly larger than that of a paper charting system. â€Å"The CBO recently conducted a study and reported that, on average, EHR implementation costs for hospitals amount to approximately $14,500 per bed for implementation. Annual operating costs amount to $2,700 per bed per year† (Dell, 2010).Some of the medical professionals that have been in the profession for a while may find it difficult to adjust to this completely new way of charting. The same populations of people who have trouble navigating a computer fall short of the typical learning curve when it comes to learning this new method of charting. According to the Health Information Management Journal â€Å"Going paperless is great, but going fully automated paperless is impressive† (Boo, Noh, Kim, Kim, 2011, p. 12). While this may be true, consider how this will affect the job market.There are thousands of people who are clerks, receptionists and medical assistants whose jobs are primarily filing, copying, assembling charts etc. Due to companies moving toward EMR systems, a lot of people are losing their jobs because there is no need for them because the computer is taking over their job, not to mention taking away the personable feel that is found in most offices and or hospitals. â€Å"I used to work at Tampa General Hospital as a clerk on one of the units but because we recently switched to a computer charting system I quit my job due to lack of hours.The only thing I stayed for in the end was scanning paper charts into the new electronic versions† (Justin Mukhalian, telemetry tech, 2012). Either way we view the evolution of medical charts we all know eventually paper products will dissipate so much to the point where they are hardly used in any aspect of our lives; this is just the nature of the beast. Electronic medical records were once a thing of the future, but the future is now and paper medical charts are becoming a practice o f the past.Both methods focus on providing the patient with quality healthcare while providing useful information for other clinicians reviewing patients’ charts to provide that same quality of care. With anything in life, you take the good with the bad and in regards to medical records it is ultimately about what is best for the practice, the patient and clinician. Paper charts are simple, familiar, and almost foolproof but EMR’s are modern, organized, and environmentally friendly.More than 20 years ago, businesses began anticipating a paperless workplace. Today, professionals continue to integrate the latest electronic systems into their business plans hoping to achieve a ‘paper-free’ environment. Is this the right move for our society? Only time will tell. References Cote, C. (2010, October). Going â€Å"paperless† or â€Å"fully automated paperless†? American Chiropractor, 32(10), 22-23. Retrieved from http://web. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. rasmussen. edu/? ehost/? detail? id=4;hid=104;sid=2b51330e-5843-4272-ba93-36c23c748071%40sessionmgr114;bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=awh;AN=54575534 Dell inc. (2010). Electronic health record implementation: Costs and benefits. Retrieved from http://www. perotsystems. com/? MediaRoom/? library/? ServiceOverviews/? ServiceOverview_CostsAndBenefits. pdf Ethan, K. , Norman, S. , Prashila, D. , ; Samuel, S. (2011). Is there an app for that? Electronic health records and a new environment of conflict prevention and resolution. Law and Contemporary Problems, 74(3), 31-56. Retrieved from

Monday, July 29, 2019

Week8 cal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Week8 cal - Essay Example nts with regard to carrying out research internally or externally, and also how related matters or politics within the organisation could best be managed. Various types of organisational politics were discussed. I learnt about PAR i.e participatory action research, and about grounded research i.e. research where data is collected and then a theory developed, rather than the more usual creation of a hypothesis in the first instance. Research ethics was considered both from the reciprocity point of view i.e where researchers and those under consideration could both benefit, and also from a safety/informed consent/confidentiality view point. Bell and Bryman, (2007) stated that ethics should not just be a check list to be completed, but an aspirational part of research design. The members of my learning set helped me on the subject of research being emancipatory, that is free from imposed constraints, or not. The main features of PAR are diversity, case orientation, collaboration, the linking of social action to scientific knowledge, eclecticism, using local knowledge and the emergent process. In my particular situation it is collaboration between the various sectors within the company which needs to be improved and this will require the participation and intervention of top management. Zuber-Skerritt and Perry in 2002 made suggestions as to how to both connect, and at the same time differentiate, between the theories behind a piece of research and the pragmatic actions required. I will be able to follow their advice during the preparation for my thesis. My major concern is improving the motivation levels of employees as I stated earlier. The creation of knowledge and its dissemination are improving. There are employees who have come gradually to understand the importance of this, but others remain seemingly overly concerned about their job security, feeling that if lots of information is created and shared around this could place their further employment in

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Community Involvement Program Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Community Involvement Program - Essay Example Community Academy Public Charter Schools (CAPCS) and Northwestern University have implemented community involvement programs as part of the learning process. CAPCS incorporates parent involvement in teaching young children at the elementary level. The Amos 3 campus at CAPCS provides early childhood programs that give children a firm academic career foundation (CAPCS, 1). The program focuses on basic concepts of math and reading as part of educational introduction. Social development, respect, good behavior, and passion for learning are promoted at the campus. Parents team up with teachers and administrator to assist the development process. CAPCS has been successful by concentrating on science and technology to emphasis hand-on problem solving skills. Children learn critical thinking and problem solving and acquire basic knowledge required in all academic fields. This has been instrumental in preparing children academically and socially before venturing into secondary school, which h as led to successful academicians from Amos 3 campus (CAPCS, 2). Northwestern university has several programs within their community involvement program that provides students with local and international opportunities. The Applied Medical Society provides events targeting students with interest in healthcare provision. Participants learn basic skills such as CPR in these events (NU, 1). Campus kitchens employ volunteer students who learn the process of recycling un-served food into nutritious meals for seniors, community organizations, and youth programs. Graduates and undergraduates also participate in exchange and capacity building programs with cohorts from over 50 universities in over 40 countries. These workshops provide mentorship and prepare students for career opportunities. Most activities are centered on students and there is little participation from parents. The program prepares students for career ventures and student organizations within the campus have been instrumental in the success of the community involvement program.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Imobilization of enzymes in clinical diagnosis using nanotechnology Research Proposal

Imobilization of enzymes in clinical diagnosis using nanotechnology - Research Proposal Example Immobilization can be done either physically or chemically. Physical immobilization involves weak interactions between the existing enzyme and the support whereas chemical immobilization includes formation of covalent bonds with the enzyme. Examples of physical methods of immobilization include adsorbing the enzyme in a water-soluble matrix, microencapsulating the enzyme with a solid membrane. This article looks into an overview of how immobilization was applied in the clinical diagnosis of the above mentioned diseases and new techniques that can be applied in the diagnosis process that reflect on advancements in the preceding methods. Nanotechnology has been applied in immobilization of enzymes via peptide mapping which is achieved through proteolytic digestion with enzymes such as trypsin. This process has been a possibility due to the quick and efficiency in the identification and digestion of unknown protein. Peptide mapping is done with the aid of enzymatic cleavage of the protein. Identification of the peptide fragments is done using either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and in each case of identification separation of the mixture improves the coverage of the sequence. Peptide mapping is disadvantageous from the manual way of manipulation of samples besides lengthened enzymatic activities during proteolytic digestion. An antibody having a high affinity for a the substance under test is attached to a solid surface for example the human chorionic gonadotropin and a mixture of the purified human chorionic gonadotropin and a fluid test sample are passed through a test system and observations made on the results. Absence of human chorionic gonadotropin in the sample tested in deduced from the binding of the linked enzyme and the less the human

Friday, July 26, 2019

Autobiographical gender socialization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Autobiographical gender socialization - Essay Example While I was a homemaker, I was stigmatised by the community and with no any forecast. As a medical student, I am regarded as a valuable woman, and my life has been full of joy. The similarity of cooking soup portrays my life has a homemaker. On the other hand, writing papers shows my life as a medical student. Introduction A gender-based examination of the relation between the need to be the ultimate writer with the urge to be the ultimate soup maker is the thesis of this paper. The information given is autobiographical. My goal is to express my changing role from a homemaker, to a doctor who is successful in the area of academics. Gender plays a crucial role by virtue of that the homemaker’s work of preparing soup is feminized in community, whereas the medical’s student work of writing papers is masculine. To start with, a literature review on the duty of a woman and the merit of female’s voice will be given (Watson 432). According to this review, a clear pictur e of my changing responsibility from that of a homemaker to a medical student will be presented. Preparing soup originates from a disciplinary system and is seen as a kind of individual –construction, whereas writing papers is a resistant system and a self-reconstruction. These two opposing life experiences assist to demonstrate how a gender point of view affects my insight of women’s importance in the community. ... First, preparing soup helped to keep my daughter’s nutritional health and give a disciplinary system in my determination to be the best mother. Second, that is from a qualitative perspective, in my society, being a perfect and outstanding wife is seen as a need for the growth of the kid admirable characteristics such as joyfulness and cheerfulness. This positive approach and hopeful mannerism can be recognized by consuming the correct nutrition soup. Third, from a quantitative point of view, the more weight my daughter realized, the more kinds of soups I had to prepare for him (Kosta 212). Therefore, the measurable results of maintaining my daughter health through the means of preparing soup could be the most useful pointer of whether I was a perfect, exceptional or even a successful homemaker in my community. Metaphorically, preparing soup showed the love and care I had for my daughter, which had gone far beyond merely providing her necessity for food. To a wide extent, carin g out this activity was an attempt to obey the rules of social expectations of a woman’s role. In addition, the capability to prepare soup was the criteria for determining whether I was the best mother. In terms of the marital perspective, preparing soup became a way of raising my bargaining power with my husband according to tradition, which showed that a well-educated man believes that the best wife has to understand how to cook and be willing to prepare soup for the family members every day. Preparing soup is regarded as a homemaker’s main significant, activity as related to other forms of house activities, which includes washing utensils, ironing clothes and sweeping the floor. This is because it may significantly influence the health of the

Ground Subsidence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words

Ground Subsidence - Essay Example Most human built structures do rely on the ground for stability but what if the ground suddenly becomes unstable What if subsidence occurs This paper aims to answer these questions by discussing the nature of subsidence and its effects on civil works. I will be providing definitions and possible causes of subsidence. For the civil works, I will be enumerating the effects along precautionary and remedial measures that can mitigate its effects. "Ground subsidence" is legally defined as the means or process that is characterized by the downward displacement of surface material caused by natural phenomena such as removal of underground fluids, natural consolidation, or dissolution of underground minerals, or by man-made phenomena such as underground mining. (Colorado Geologic Survey) Subsidence may occur abruptly-virtually instantly-or gradually over many years. It may occur uniformly in a small, confined area as shown in Figure 1a or may occur over a wide area as local depressions as shown in Figure 1b. Subsidence is commonly associated with the dissolution of soluble rocks, such as limestone, beneath the surface while those with crystalline rocks in which most metals are mined have greater strength and are less likely to settle or collapse. The resultant landscape has closed depressions and is known as karst topography. Note that the depressions do not necessarily result to holes in the ground as shown in Figure 2. ... ed subsidence occur as a result of withdrawal of fluids from subsurface reservoirs as shown in Figure 4, from the collapse of soil and rock over subsurface holes, such as those left by underground mining and from the draining of wetlands. (Waltham and Cushaw, 2004) FIGURE 1a. SMALL SINKHOLE. Not all sinkholes are large subsidence features. Small collapse sinkholes, such as this one in Boyle County, Kentucky, are common. (Kentucky Geological Survey) FIGURE 1.b LARGE COLLAPSE SINKHOLE. This sinkhole near Montevallo in central Alabama was dubbed the "December Giant" after it measured close to 120 m (400 ft.) in diameter and 45 m (150 ft.) in depth. (U.S. Geological Survey) FIGURE 2. KARST TOPOGRAPHY. This rolling landscape of the Mitchell Plateau in southern Indiana is typical of karst topography in a humid temperate climate. (Samuel S. Frushour, Indiana Geological Survey) Subsidence can also occur due to expansive soils. There are clay-rich soils which shrink significantly during dry periods and expand or swell during wet periods. The swelling is caused by the chemical attraction of water molecules to the surface of very fine particles of clay. Swelling can also be caused by the chemical attraction of water molecules to layers within the crystal structure of some clay minerals. Figure 3a shows the mechanism by which expansion of soil can occur while Figure 3b shows water consumption by trees as another cause. FIGURE 3. EXPANSIVE SOILS (a) Smectite clay expands as water molecules are added onto and within the clay particles. (b) Effects of soil's shrinking and swelling at a home site. (After Mathewson, C. C., and J. P. Castleberry, II. Expansive soils: Their engineering geology. Texas A&M University) FIGURE 4. PROCESS OF SUBSIDENCE DUE TO WATER

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Compare and Contrast the styles Stephen King uses to bring terror to Essay

Compare and Contrast the styles Stephen King uses to bring terror to the reader in his books IT and MISERY - Essay Example This apart, he also shows mastery in turning ordinary animals around into beings that perpetuate blood-curdling terror in humans. The rabid bat and the dog in ‘Cujo’ are classic examples of this type. King also shows definite traits in creating horror through science fiction and possesses an uncanny ability to weave it into the fabric of everyday life, and to create suspense that leaves the readers begging for more. He also manages to blend into the tension felt by characters, into every day situations, like: when the hero or heroine goes into an attic the fear they feel becomes tangible to his readers. Such effectiveness is perhaps attributable to the talent he possesses in spinning a web of different elements of horror to trap his audience into its meshy threads. Literature which falls into the category of horror often explains the source of horror through supernatural events. Works of Stephen King are no exception to this. The writer also uses settings to evoke horror in the reader’s mind. For example, gurgling sounds issuing from the closet’s drainpipe and the monster springing out of it, in the novel ‘It’ is an excellent example of how king can employ settings to create horror. Similarly, writers present old houses, damp cellars, dungeons, forests and abandoned castles in horror fiction to evoke a sense of the primordial fear in the readers. Fictional horrors have a great effect on the minds of people because often readers are tempted to believe that the incidents portrayed can actually happen in their lives. Generally, the main theme of the horror literature is the struggle between good and evil forces which is true in the case of King also. However, a unique attribute of King’s writings is his skill, in explaining things rationally with the help of horror. A good number of horror novels deal with the thirst for knowledge and how it affects our society. Most of such novels fall into the category of science fiction.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Catastrophes Experienced in the Modern World Essay

The Catastrophes Experienced in the Modern World - Essay Example Some human actions have played a role in creating global warming and escalating the calamity in the world. The primary cause of global warming is the greenhouse effect. Upon reaching the surface of the earth, an amount of sunlight is absorbed, while the rest radiates back to the atmosphere (Balachandran 107). The sun that radiates to the atmosphere does so at a longer wavelength, with some wavelengths being absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Some of the heat energy that would be lost to space is reflected the earth’s surface by the greenhouse gases. Thus, the decisions of human beings to adopt the widespread use of greenhouses have significantly contributed to the escalation of global warming. The increase in global warming can be attributed to high incidences involving the use of greenhouse gases (Atwood 15). The emission of carbon dioxide also causes global warming; burning of fuels plays a role in escalating the incidences of global warming all over the world. Fuels such as diesel, natural gas, petrol, oil, organic diesel, and organic petrol mainly contributed to global warming and overall environmental degradation. Industries emit harmful carbon dioxide gas to the environment, causing massive destruction of the environment. When carbon dioxide is released to the environment, it remains in the atmosphere for as long as 100 to 200 years. The increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment creates a rise in earth’s temperature. Another factor responsible for the rise in global warming is the increased pollution caused by the clearing of vegetation cover. Human beings invade forests and clear vegetation and trees in order to settle.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Storm Drainage Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Storm Drainage Study - Essay Example A line graph is usually used for the discharge over time. Rainfall is plotted with the use of a bar graph. There are several factors that control the shape of a hydrograph. The different shapes are shown and the main components are labelled according to Weyman, 1975. Hydrographs have differences between the peak rainfall from its peak discharge. The difference is the lag time. If the lag time is great, there is a less chance of flooding. A short lag time will indicate that water had already reached the river channel at a fast rate. The rise in discharge shown in the is called the rising limb, and the decrease in the discharge is called the falling limb. The larger size means that there is longer lag time as water has a longer distance to reach the river trunk. The shape of the basin is normally elongated and produces a lower peak flow and longer lag time than a circular basin with the same size (Gillesania,2006). The line graph illustrates the change in height of water in the river over time, while the bar graphs illustrates discharge of water in the river with respect to time. The study was taken for 96 hours or 4 days. It was done continuously, taking the height reading every hour for 96 hours. All the readings vary from each other. In its analysis, there was almost a steady flow of water from the start up to 42 hours. After 42 hours, the water in the river began to rise. The rising of the water is called the process of rising limb. The time between the rise of water and the time the water reaches its peak is known to be the basin lag time. It reached the peak flow at the 57th hour in the study. This means that water had reached its peak discharge and is now starting to fall down. From the peak point, when the water height starts to fall down the process is called recession limb. After the recession limb, the water discharge will normalize. Channel Design Given data are: Apply the Manning formula to design a suitable breadth b, with Q = 1.1 m2s the given data of discharge of the channel d = 0.6 m n = 0.015 where: v = velocity, m/s S = 0.0005 R = hydraulic radius v = R2/3S1/ 2 S = slopen n = Manning's coefficient of roughness A = db A = cross-sectional area b = breadth Q = Av d = depth wetted perimeter = 2d + b v = R2/3S1/ 2 n Requirement = width of base b of the open channel Discharge Q of the river into the open channel Design of water pump to discharge water from the river to the open channel Computations: A = db = (0.6)b Wetted Perimeter = 2d + b = 2(0.4) + b = 0.8 + b = 0.8 + b. Q = Av 1.1 = 0.6b 1.1(0.015) = 0.6b 0.0165 = 0.6b = b 1.2406 = b = b3 1.9093 = b3 1.9093 = b3 1.9093 = b3 1.9093(1.44 + 2.4b + b2) = 0.36b5 2.7494 + 4.5423b +

Monday, July 22, 2019

Should Social Media, Including Facebook, Assist in Law Enforcement Essay Example for Free

Should Social Media, Including Facebook, Assist in Law Enforcement Essay We all know what happened to Jill Meagher. What some of you may not know is that social media played an integral role in solving her murder. Without the use of social media, Jill Meagher’s case may have remained unsolved. Unfortunately, we usually associate social media with negative connotations; however what we haven’t thought of is the positive contributions it could make to our society. One change that we should make that would benefit us incredibly is to use social media, including Facebook, to assist in law enforcement. I don’t have to define to you what social media is, we all use it on a daily basis. If I was speaking to an older audience I may have to explain, but to be honest most of you are going to go home and log onto Facebook. It has always been a part of our world and it probably always will be. Sadly, one part of social media that we are very aware of is that it is often used to harm, to hurt – this is clearly evident in the numerous accounts of cyber bullying. I do not intend to pretend that there aren’t negative aspects of social media; I am simply trying to emphasise the enormous power and influence that it holds. If we could harness this power and rather use it to protect and assist in law enforcement the advantages would be tremendous. So, how can social media help us? One enormously beneficial aspect of social media is in the locating of missing persons. In Australia, one person goes missing every 15 minutes. The police simply do not have the resources to locate all of these people. However, hundreds of media sites have already been set up with the sole intent of finding missing persons. Crimestoppers have a mobile application to help connect the community to the police in reporting crime. Assistant Commissioner Peter Barrie of the New South Wales Police said It is a great way for people to send us a message and support it with a picture, anywhere, anytime,† The new tools offer the community an opportunity to assist in a way that is beneficial to us all. It makes sense to harness social media’s power for good – to solve real life problems such as finding missing persons. More importantly however, social media cuts down those crucial minutes when finding a missing person the minutes that determine whether a person has hope of being found. A powerful real life example of the effectiveness of this method occurred in November 2011 when 13 year old Allie Loftis ran away from her home near Boston. Thanks to social media, her father Tony found her 12 days later, with a 42-year-old sexual predator. After coverage of his Facebook, YouTube and Twitter campaign, local papers and TV stations followed the story and eventually found her. Mr Loftis said that â€Å"†¦the more people there are looking; the more likely you are to find them, that is really just basic common sense. Without the aid of social media, who knows what could have happened to his daughter. Secondly, social media not only provides a way of locating people, but also assists in gathering evidence on suspects. At its core, social media is an online database of personal information, and once it is online, can never be taken down. This method was used in Canada after the 2011 Vancouver Stanley Cup riot. The police admitted to being overwhelmed by the sheer volume of evidence provided by social media, enabling them to convict a number of rioters. The frequency of cases being solved through evidence found on social media is large and growing as it is becoming gradually more prevalent and helpful to law enforcement. A survey conducted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police in 2012 found that 86% of agencies use social media to review profiles and the activities of suspects. This statistic shows how increasingly reliant law enforcement is becoming on social media. Of course, this is not the only way that the police can gather evidence on suspects. Many people today have online identities. This makes it that much easier for investigators to create fake online profiles to track or befriend suspects in order to gain new information and insight into their crimes. They will also be able to gain an understanding of the suspect’s mentality through monitoring their posts, giving them the ability to secure an accurate conviction. The knowledge that the law enforcement agencies are policing the social media pages for potential criminals should provide those who use them for innocent pleasure and chat, a sense of reassurance. Lastly, social media is one of the most effective means of communication when it comes to sending out messages on a large scale. This is why it is such a great platform to inform the public. I guarantee you that every single person in this room will have access to social media right now. Virtually all phones come with internet access; we can get onto Facebook at the touch of a button. How much easier could it get? While users are checking their messages and accepting friend requests, they surely have enough time to look at that missing person picture their friends shared. Within seconds of the Police posting that picture, a user can share it with their entire network of friends, family and co-workers who then can share it within their own networks. A further advantage of using social media to inform the public is the relationship it will create between the police and community. Through the more personal style of communication, social media is likely to help create a climate of trust and foster better interaction with the general public. The police officers seem more â€Å"human† and therefore the public would have more trust in them. People want to be able to talk to the police in whatever way they can, wherever they can. This can be done through social media. Through this it can be seen quite clearly that social media is highly capable of informing the public for the interests of law enforcement. I can understand that some people may have reservations due to the current unregulated nature of social media. However, the answer is not to say that we shouldn’t use it but rather to implement appropriate safeguards in order to refine and regulate these sites. Like all new and revolutionary developments, it may take a while for it to be perfected, but soon using social media to solve crime will be no more unusual than the old fashioned pen and paper. Change is hard to accept, however resisting the use of social media to assist in law enforcement is as useless as it would have been to resist the demise of the horse and cart when cars were invented. Society naturally evolves; we need to focus on the positive and strengthening change this will have on our nation. Our generation have embraced this technology, unlike our parents. It is natural that we should see it as part of the future of law enforcement. As many people say, the youth is the hope for our future. Younger generations do not respond, like our parents, to the traditional media such as newspapers or radio, we respond to a unique function of communication social media. Our most important priority should be our safety, Social media is not the answer to all our problems, but it will bring us one step closer.

Human condition and the passage from innocence to experience Essay Example for Free

Human condition and the passage from innocence to experience Essay In Frankenstein, Mary Shelley reflects her views on the faults and weaknesses of human beings and the disasters these imperfections can cause through the personalities and actions of the characters in the novel. The results of the characters personalities and actions show how significant certain undesired traits can be. Through the journeys of the individual characters Mary Shelly shows how we, as human beings, develop in the path from innocence to experience. Surprisingly, the majority of Shelleys obvious criticisms are divulged through the hero, Victor Frankenstein. Frankenstein is used to fulfil this purpose in a multitude of ways: In her 1823 Introduction, Mary Shelley suggests that Victors main crime is his presumption in displacing God. The works of Milton could have inspired this; by way of her parents, he would have been a natural choice of inspiration for Shelley. Milton believed that power corrupts human beings and distrusted anyone who could claim power over anyone else. Therefore, Frankenstein does wrong in claiming power over the monsters life by creating him. We see a change in Victors views on this subject; at the beginning of the novel Frankenstein is fixated with the idea of creating a new being from the remains of dead people and bringing this new being to life by means of electricity. As the novel develops, through his experiences he begins to see the true repercussions of his actions and finally sees the magnitude of what he has done in his thoughtlessness (innocence. ) This can also be seen as an attack on human nature. As the creature opens his eyes for the first time, facets of Victors character become revealed. Whereas the read expects Victor to reflect the joy of having finally received his goal, his reaction is on of horror: now that I have finished, the beauty of the dream has vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. While one may assume that his repulsion is due to the physical appearance of the wretch (p56), Victor had created the monster and knew very well what the creature looked like before it awoke. Therefore, his terror seems to represent a sort of subconscious self-vision. This could be Shelleys way of criticising how we can become clouded by ambition and do not realise the consequences of our actions until it is too late. Towards the end of the novel Victor has learnt from his experiences and realises what the possible consequences could be of creating a companion for the monster. He knows the destruction of the female monster could result in his own death but for once he is selfless and takes responsibility. Unlike his first venture, he is thinking of the greater-good rather than his own happiness. In the beginning of the novel we see the development of Victors ambition from healthy to obsessive. Fired by his enthusiasm during his first experiments, he imagines how A new species would bless me as its creator and source No father could claim the gratitude of his child so completely as I should deserve theirs(p54). A possibly interpretation here would be to presume that this is a criticism of mans belief that he is indestructible and he can thus take on the role of God and do whatever he likes. This could have sprung from the death of Marys mother; human beings believe themselves to be all-powerful and virtually invincible but they cannot avoid death. On the other hand, perhaps the crime upon which Shelley focuses is not what he does, but what he fails to do: nurture his creation. Victors ambition and achievement may be heroic, problems only occur in his inability to bear responsibility for his creation. In Brannaghs film interpretation, Frankensteins soul motivation for the creation of the monster is to cheat death (possibly an honourable purpose which would not suggest that Shelley meant Victor to be disliked). However, in the novel, there is no evidence to suggest that this is the case. Frankenstein is also portrayed to wish to undermine the power and position of women. By this we see him rebelling against the normal family unit and the responsibilities that belonging to such a unit entails. This could be interpreted as a fear of the natural process of birth, possibly echoing Shelleys own mixed feelings towards childbirth. First pregnant at sixteen, and almost constantly pregnant during the next five years, Shelley lost most of her children soon after they were born. Victors workshop of filthy creation (p55) may have womb-like suggestions. Following this argument, Helen Moers likens the description of the newly created monster to that of a newborn baby in her book Female Gothic. Shelley also uses Frankenstein, and his failure to comply with social expectations in his creation of his creature, to criticise society on many different levels. When Frankenstein gives life to the monster, he is so disgusted with its appearance and its deviation from a normal human being that he rejects and abandons it. This reflects how society shuns anyone or anything that does not conform to their idea of normality. This particular criticism probably sprung from Shelleys up bringing. With two revolutionary parents, Mary Shelley was certainly not born in to a conformist family. A particular example of this is the fact that Mary Shelleys parents were not married. At the time this would have been virtually unheard of in decent families. Mary was possible criticised by her peers as having radical parents, or being bullied because her parents were not normal. She shows her anger at their ignorance by showing Victor be uncaring, and leading the reader to sympathise with the monster rather than his cruel creator. After the conviction of Justine we see a possibility that Victor will admit to being responsible for the death of Justine. However, he is cowardly. He claims Justine to be innocent, and claims to know Williams murderer but does not confess. Again, it is his failure to act that results in disastrous consequences. However, by announcing his faith in Justines innocence we are endeared to him. Shelley used this to show us how he improves with the experience he gains. Towards the end of the novel the monster requests that Frankenstein grant him a companion to end his misery. We see a blinker of sympathy and consideration for the monster in Victor at this point. He has improved himself slightly by this point. When the monster makes his proposition, Frankenstein actually considers with the monster. We can, therefore, see that by this point he becoming prepared to reason with the monster like an equal. We begin to think he is going to take responsibility for his actions by taking pity on the monster. After all it cannot be forgotten that the monster could have honoured his promise and disappeared with its mate, thus preventing the death of Clerval, Elizabeth and possibly Victors own father. But on the destruction of the female monsters body Victor fails to take true responsibility and virtually caused the deaths of Clerval and Elizabeth. Again, his experience has made improved him, almost to the point where he could redeem himself of the crime that is abandoning what is effectively his child. At the end of the novel, although Victors dying wish is that the deaths of his loved ones be avenged, we can see how his journey has changed him. His last expressed feelings are that of fatigue and exhaustion. This shows how Shelley hopes human beings will become tired of their flawed ways of thinking and learn from their experiences. In a direct contrast, the monsters passage from innocence to experience only produces negative results. In spite of his unnatural creation, the monster can be seen to symbolize a new start. However, as he proceeds with his education, as he moves from nature to culture, the monster learns more and more about the injustices of society. He learns about human emotions and comes to desire compassion and love but is rejected on account of his repulsive physical appearance. He masters language, but language fails him; rather than allowing his entry into human society as he had hoped, it only serves to make him more fully aware of his unique origin and alien nature. His education is part of what makes him miserable. It is only when he is exposed to, and suffers from the viciousness of human society that he himself begins to demonstrate violent behaviour, to act as the monster his appearance suggests him to be. What I perceive to be the monsters most vicious act is the murder of Elizabeth on Victor and Elizabeths wedding night. Without his primitive human emotions he would never have known what he was missing out in a female companion. With his experiences with the DeLaceys he saw how strong the family unit could be and felt even more bitter when he was rejected. Without such knowledge or experience he would never have had the determination to enact such a terrible crime. It is his human emotions that finally cause his misery to consume him at the end of the novel. When Victor dies, the monster if found by his body crying. This is a common human characteristic; in most cases, even if two people did not get along well in life or had not spoken in years, if one is to die, the other forgets the past and exonerates their dead friend, acquaintance or family member by mourning their loss. They regret things that they may not have said or done, and wish they could turn back time to put things right before the other passed away. It is the monsters sadness at the death of his creator and his regret for the events of the past that finally consume him and tear from him his desire to live. Without these human emotions, the monster may not have destined himself to such a tragic end. It could be argued that Shelley was criticising the power of human emotions and the negative results they can produce. As I mentioned before, Shelley lost many of her children, this must have caused her great depression misery. These may have affected her ability to live her life; thus, she may have been suggesting that if she could have been less humane, her life may not have been as miserable. In conclusion both the monster and Frankenstein show Shelleys feelings towards human behaviour, how we learn from our experiences, and how we deal with things in the future. However, it is arguable whether she is intending to show that knowledge or ignorance is bliss through he contrasting passages of Frankenstein and his creation.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Application Of Molecular Genetics To Crops

Application Of Molecular Genetics To Crops The science of biotechnology is likely to be to the first half of the 21st century what the computer was to the second half of the 20th century. Its implications are profound, its potential benefits massive. Britain is well placed to keep our lead in Europe. I want to make it clear: we dont intend to let our leadership fall behind and are prepared to back that commitment with investment. are the words of Tony Blair at the European Bioscience Conference (November 2000) (cited in Francesca Tencalla, 2005), which is the best way to present my positive answer towards the question. The molecular genetics positively impacts the plant breeding paradigm. Introduction: Centuries ago, the science was unknown to the farmers but the present agricultural scenario is changing its traditional frame of conventional breeding to the most recent and modernized frame of molecular plant breeding. Today, the world agriculture is facing great challenges on four fronts visually, Production, Population, Pollution, and Politics. Also, the change in climate (global warming) is the next major challenge for the crops, as unlike animals they can not move from one place to another. The prospects for feeding humanity as we are in 21st century often are portrayed in a daunting light to keep pace with the population growth. As we are told that worlds population has been growing faster than crop production, since the early 1980s and is expected to be 8 billion in next or two decades. At this point, we need to think in-depth about the opportunities to meet these challenges and to improve the crop production at a subsequent rate. Are the agronomic practices merely going to pl ay the key role or the refined crop protection measures will be the major part of increase in crop production, at this junction of scientific development? No other than, molecular genetics and the application of molecular techniques to enhance the efficiency of plant breeding, will play the crucial role in crop improvement, is a promise to the next generations (Ben Miflin, 2000). At the turn of the 20th century, the discovery of principles of natural selection and hybridization by Darwin and the rediscovery of Mendelian genetics served as the basis for plant breeding and genetics. In the same way, tremendous increase in crop yields in the 21st century has been powered by the development of plant biotechnology, -omics era of molecular biology, and molecular genetics. The recent techniques of molecular genetics are emerging continuously to overcome the demand of growing population (Moose et al., 2008). The chief objective of molecular genetics is to enhance crop production and crop produce usefulness by genetic modification of crop plants; this is precisely what plant breeding has been doing from the day prehistoric man began to domesticate the orphan (wild) species. The molecular genetic techniques aim to give traditional breeding a technological boost, says Jorge Dubcovsky, a wheat molecular geneticist from University of California, whose group is presently working on Marker Assisted selection in wheat for 23 separate traits, conferring resistance to insect-pests, fungi and viruses. His enthusiastic claim is that this research could offer the wings for crop improvement to plant breeding what jet engine has brought to air travel. Basic Terms: Plant Breeding is an art as well as science of improving genetic makeup of plants in relation to their economic use (Paul et al., 2006; Singh B.D., 2003). Molecular genetics refers to the study of molecules, our genes, their structure and functions at molecular level. Also studies the transfer of genes from one generation to the next. It employs the principles of genetics and methods of molecular biology (NCBI, Wikipedia). Recently, Crop improvement is the science of value addition to the existing crop species by using the technique, which marries conventional plant breeding with molecular biology, to get theatrical gains in yield (Austin R.B., 1986). Hundred years of Genetics: (From domestication to transformation) Plant breeding deals with the aspect of crop production. In early days, plant breeding was mainly based on skills and the abilities of the breeder involved in the programme. But as the genetic engineering and the tools of molecular genetics were elucidated, breeding methods and programmes were designed in their light. Plant breeding began with the domestication, when primitive men cultivated the first crop for the benefit of mankind. Thereafter, the process of exploiting the crops for improvement of their commercial values has a long history in itself. As early as 700 B.C., Babylonians and Assyrians performed artificial pollination in date palm. Then, the first artificial hybrid named Fairchilds mule produced by Thomas Fairchild by crossing carnation with sweet William in 1717. These provide the clear evidence of plant breeding exist as an art before the discovery of Mendelian genetics. In 1900, the rediscovery of Gregor John Mendels paper provided the foundation for the vast knowledge of genetics for crop improvement. A noteworthy development resulted from the discoveries of G.H. Shull on inbreeding in maize (Zea mays), led to the production of hybrid varieties in maize, sorghum, cotton, rice and several other crops. Green Revolution, one of the greatest achievements in the modern plant breeding has been the introduction of dwarf gene in cereals, particularly in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa), (Borlaug, 2000). In 1960, Allozymes the first biochemical genetic markers were on hand. The next decade provided new tools to geneticists of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and Southern blotting. Taq polymerase was found in 1980 and shortly Polymerase chain reaction was developed, which is now routinely used in plant breeding research. The recently developed technology is single nucleotide polymorphic markers based on high density DNA arrays, a technique known as Gene Chips (Rodomiro Ortiz, 1998). In 1980, the era of biotechnology began with the successful production of the first transgenic plant using Agrobacterium (Moose and Mumm, 2008). The methods of crop improvement have changed dramatically through last 25 years. The continued exploitation of biotechnology and the integration of genomic tools in crop improvement widen the plant breeding research. The novel genetic approaches like next generation sequencing (NGS), high-throughput marker genotyping, advanced-backcross QTL analysis, introgression libraries (ILs), multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) population, can be harnessed to recognize the genetic variations within the crop species and between cultivated and wild species (Varshney et al., 2009). The seeds of molecular genetics are immensely sprouting and sooner will grow into a self-sufficient fruitful plant to alleviate the world hunger. Application and Impact of Molecular Genetics on Crop Improvement: The Father of Green Revolution, Dr. Norman Borlaug said in an interview: Biotechnology helps farmers produce higher yields on less land. This is a very environmentally favorable benefit. He justified his statement by giving the fact that the worlds grain output in 1950 was 692 million tonnes. After forty years or so later, the worlds farmers sown the crops in about the same acreage of land but they harvested 1.9 billion tonnes that counts the 170% increase in global production. To get this increased production in 1999 using the same conventional breeding, farmers would have needed an additional land of 1.8 billion hectares, instead of using 600 million as used in 1950 ( Opportunely, plant breeding research is at an arena where there are remarkable advances being made at molecular levels and these endow with opportunities to augment the molecular technologies available for crop improvement as outlined below. Distant hybridization: With the advancement of molecular genetics, it is now possible to transfer genes between distantly related plants. Now genes can be transferred interspecific and intergeneric. Recombinant DNA technology can be amplified to transfer the desirable genes from lower level organisms. For example, Progenies derived from rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) plants pollinated by Oenothera biennis exhibited numerous morphological and developmental traits. Results from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that several rice lines contained extensive genetic variations, which included disappearance of rice parental bands and/or appearance of novel bands (Chu Xiu Chang et al., 2007). Recombinant DNA technology: There are two methods for crop improvement using r-DNA technology namely, direct and indirect methods. The direct method involves the introduction of novel gene(s) to crops by transformation outside the constraints of sexual crossing. Whereas, the indirect method involves the improving crops by the development of molecular markers (Miflin, CIHEAM). These methods have their specific significance in plant breeding so, are discussed as under. Molecular Markers for crop improvement: Molecular marker refers to the easily detectable marker linked to a desirable trait. The plant breeding analyses like, early generation selection, enrichment of complex F1 generation, choice of donor parent in backcrossing, recovery of recurrent parent genotype in backcrossing, linkage block analysis and selection, exploit molecular markers as a valuable tool. Application of molecular markers in plant breeding includes Germplasm characterization/fingerprinting, determining seed purity, systematic sampling of Germplasm, and phylogenetic analysis. Molecular markers played a key role in replacing bioassays (Varshney et al., 2008). Crop plants exhibit 20-50,000 genes, out of which only few are of our interest in crop improvement. Conventional linkage maps are based on these genes of interest which have distinct morphological effect. But there are limitations in such maps as they cannot map out the genes governing quantitative traits, are time consuming and tedious. Therefore, emphases were made to focus on molecular markers for linkage mapping. There are many types of molecular markers visually isozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), cleaved amplified polymorphic sites (CAPS), simple sequence repeats (SSR), amplified length fragment polymorphism (AFLP), and the latest includes single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and single feature polymorphism (SFP), (Bertrand C. Y Collard and David J Mackill, 2008; Varshney et al., 2006). Out of these, SSR or microsatellite is the most widely used marker in major cereal crops (Bertrand C. Y Collard and David J Mackill, 2008). The SNP and DArT (diversity array technology) markers are other high-throughput markers, which can be used to prepare the whole genome map even without the availability of sequence data for the crop (Varshney et al., 2006). In recent years, noteworthy and stimulating progress has been made in marker assisted technology and the development of markers linked to the gene of interest. Some important achievements are given in table 1. Molecular Assisted Selection (MAS): MAS (figure 1) speed ups and makes conventional breeding easier as herein, linked molecular markers are used for indirect selection of desirable traits that were difficult to select earlier in seedling stage (Anushri Varshney et al., 2004). Jonathan et al., 1998, while performing their research on Musa found that due to its triploid nature, the highly relevant generation and the precise linkage maps is not usually attainable. So, to generate linkage map, they first generated traditional linkage map based on diploid relatives and extrapolation to the polyploidy crop and then did polyploidy mapping based on single dose markers in population derived from crosses between tetraploid and diploid genotypes. Thus, it became possible to generate the linkage map of current Musa, which is an allotetraploid. Bioinformatics: Bioinformatics is often overlooked side of molecular marker strategies. As we know that molecular technologies produces a large number of data, with great chances of error introduction during handling and interpretation. The correct accreditation of data is necessary for getting the precise results after a long run of experiments, so for maintaining that huge amount of data bioinformatics enabled such software that provide accurate results and are available through World Wide Web (Simmonds et al., 1999). Quantitative trait Loci (QTL): The most interesting use of molecular markers is the efficient selection of traits. They also made it possible to select polygenic traits controlled by QTLs, by the use of molecular markers like RFLPs and isozymes. Interesting work has been done on QTL by Tanksley et al., on tomatoes, Stuber et al., on maize, McCough and Doerge on rice and Bradshaw et al. on potatoes. The future research can be made in improving the disease resistance in cereal crops (Simmonds et al., 1999). Development of nodules in cereals: Leguminous plants have root nodules that contain nitrogen fixing bacteria known as Rhizobium. These bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in root nodules in the form of nitrates. If this gene can be transferred or active root nodules can be developed in cereal crops like wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, barley etc. thus, the reliability of crops on chemical fertilizers would be reduced leading to a significant reduction in cost of production as well as environmental pollution. The introduction of symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation into the major non-legume crops of the world would be one of the most significant contributions that biotechnology could make to agricultural sustainability. With this objective, Edward C. Cocking et al., studied the interaction of rhizobia with the root systems of cereals. They have already confirmed that some naturally occurring rhizobia, such as Parasponia species those isolated from root nodules of non-legume and Aeschynomene from stem nodules of tropical legume species, are able to enter the root systems of maize, rice and wheat by crack entry means the part of plant where lateral roots emerge through the root cortex, so it results to the both inter and intra cellular penetration of rhizobiain, particularly in the cortex of emerging lateral roots. In the recent study, they have interacted oxygen tolerant Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 (kindly donated by Dr J K Ladha, IRRI) isolated from stem nodules of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata with the root systems of rice and wheat. We have found that intracellular invasion of cells of the cortex of roots of both rice (IR42 and Lemont) and wheat (Wembley) results in plants that are active in nitrogen fixation as determined using acetylene reduction assays (Edward C. Cocking et al.). The Plants for future: (Development of transgenic plants) Transgenic plant is the product of genetic engineering, with artificially inserted foreign gene (Adina Breiman and Esra Galun, 1997). The most important tool in plant biotechnology is the transgenic plant production. This technique requires the study of chromosome at molecular levels, genome sequencing and the identification, selection and then insertion of gene of interest form same species in modified form, or related wild species, unrelated species, genus, across kingdom or from microbes (bacteria, virus, fungi). The successful commercialization of first transgenic crop in 1996 is the remarkable achievement in plant breeding and biotechnology. In 2008, globally both the number of countries (25 countries are GM growers) as well as the number of farmers (13.3 million farmers) growing transgenic crops in 125 million hectares of land, has increased significantly (Table-2), (ISAAA web pages). This technology boosts yields, reduce pesticide usage, increase fertilizer efficiency, enhance disease, drought, pest, resistances to various crops. Recently, Sugarbeet RR herbicide resistant variety is grown in USA, gives significant positive results. Another milestone of transgenic breeding is GOLDEN RICE: genetically modified rice that contain bets carotene which can produce vitamin-A, once consumed (Potrykus, 2001). The production of golden rice presents a second green revolution, where certain countries will become the sole producers of major money making crop. It is believed that this would be the most dominating science in future that will play the most crucial role in the crop improvement and can satisfy the growing world hunger. Future prospects: We already have genetically modified crops for various interesting traits, which are developed so far generally involve only the addition of a single gene. Looking to the future, its unclear whether complex traits, which are thought to involve multiple genes, will be amenable to manipulation through genetic engineering (Jonathan Knight, 2003). All these techniques are costly and the research in public sectors is less due to lack of funds. There is the thrust of evolving the more precise, accelerating and cheaper molecular methods that can revolutionized the world agriculture. DNA chip technology and user friendly marker system are the evolving trends in future. For sustainable and self sufficient agriculture, we need carry out continuous efforts in positive direction. There should be the willingness to accept the research and research products globally, politically and socially as well. Then only we can expect second green revolution. Conclusion: We are at the stage of broad and rapid era of science development in all the fields. Time is ripe for the second green revolution which would not only concentrate on increased productivity but also on value added traits to reduce cost of production, pollution dangers and improved quality. Rapid development of plant biotechnology, particularly molecular genetics will serve as the basis for the second green revolution. To speed up the production process economically, to fulfill the aspirations of huge populace, to achieve diversification and adding value to the primary produce so as to make agriculture enterprise farmers as well as environmental friendly. Advanced technologies are expected to materialize many of our expectations in the 21st century. On the other hand, if we arrogantly enjoy the past but ignore the new challenges, or underestimates our capabilities and feel afraid of innovations like GM crops, it is possible that we miss the good opportunities, as said in this Chinese p roverb, Ninety miles is only the half way of a hundred-mile journey. Confucius once said: The passage of time is just like the flow of the river, which goes on day and night, forever. The past glories are the momentum for our new journey; the journey of science, journey of development, journey towards the state of self reliance, while the lessons from the past may teach us to be smarter. We need molecular genetics to make historic contributions to the rejuvenation of the plant breeding and thus the agriculture.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Materialism in George Eliots Silas Marner Essay -- essays research pa

Materialism in George Eliot's Silas Marner After contemplating which theme would be best to illustrate in my paper, in the end, I chose "Materialism vs.Relationships". In certain spots in the novel, it seems, George Eliot attempts to prove that the love of others is ultimately more valuable and fulfilling than the love of money. In my opinion, the actions of few characters could be viewed as materialistic, but I managed to find three: Dunstan Cass, William Dane, and Silas Marner. First, William Dane, Silas's friend and deacon of the church in Lantern Yard.William murdered the ill senior deacon of the church while watching over him. Silas was supposed to watch over him that night. The next day, when the senior deacon was found dead and his money missing, Silas was immediately questioned and accused. William, of course, didn't defend him. He even married the woman Silas was engaged to. Instead of remaining a good friend and deacon, he chose to steal the senior deacon's money and leave Silas to deal with the consequences. Now, on to Silas Marner. After fleeing to Raveloe, S...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Obsessive-compulsive Behaviors Essay -- essays research papers

Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors "Compulsive" and "obsessive" have become everyday words. "I'm compulsive" is how some people describe their need for neatness, punctuality, and shoes lined up in the closets. "He's so compulsive is shorthand for calling someone uptight, controlling, and not much fun. "She's obsessed with him" is a way of saying your friend is hopelessly lovesick. That is not how these words are used to describe Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or OCD, a strange and fascinating sickness of ritual and doubts run wild. OCD can begin suddenly and is usually seen as a problem as soon as it starts. Compulsives (a term for patients who mostly ritualize) and obsessives (those who think of something over and over again) rarely have rituals or thoughts about nuetral questions or behaviors. What are their rituals about? There are several possible ways to list symptoms of OCD. All sources agree that the most common preoccupations are dirt (washing, germs, touching), checking for safety or closed spaces (closets, doors, drawers, appliances, light switches), and thoughts, often thoughts about unacceptable violent, sexual, or crude behavior. When the thoughts and rituals of OCD are intense, the victim's work and home life disintigrate. Obsessions are persistant, senseless, worrisome, and often times, embarrassing, or frightening thoughts that repeat over and over in the mind in an endless loop. The automatic nature of these recurant thoughts makes them difficult for the person to ignore or restrain successfully. The essence of a Compulsive Personality Disorder is normally found in a restricted person, who is a perfectionist to a degree that demands that others to submit to hisher way of doing things. A compulsive personality is also often indecisive and excessively devoted to work to the exclusion of pleasure. When pleasure is considered, it is something to be planned and worked for. Pleasurable activities are usually postponed and sometimes never even enjoyed. With severe compulsions, endless rituals dominate each day. Compulsions are incredibly repetitive and seemingly purposeful acts that result from the obsessions. The person performs certain acts according to certain rules or in a stereotypi... ...ty to discard worn out or worthless objects." (A.P.A.,'80) So much is asked about where our everyday lives stop and OCD begins. The basis of Obsessive -Compulsive Disorder is still unknown. The evidence for a biological cause is compelling but unfortunately it is still necessary to speak of the biology of behavior in vague terms. The effect of a drug, and the normality of many of the families with an OCD kid makes the importance of "poor upbringing" as a cause of OCD uncertain to say the least. This is a disease that may be thought of as doubts gone wild. Patients doubt their very own senses. They cannot believe any reasurance of everyday life. Reassurance does not work. The notion that there is a biological basis for a sense of "knowing" has interesting philosophical implications. We are normally convinced that what we see and feel is truely there. If this is a "doubting disease," and if a chemical controls this sense of doubt, then is our usual, normal belief in what our everyday senses and common sense tell us similarly determined by our brain chemistry?

Understanding Computer Networks Essay -- Research Papers

Understanding Computer Networks Each day, students and faculty at State University sit down in front of a PC or UNIX workstation and eagerly check their electronic mail, surf the World Wide Web, or run applications such as word processors and analysis packages. To most users, the magical wire which carries all of this information is nothing more than an electrical construct; two pair of wires twisted together and crimped at the end with phone connectors. Our world today is built on networking in every field from cable television to telephone systems, yet many engineers, old and young alike, have no idea what constructs enable them to communicate seamlessly across the globe. Computer technology is constantly evolving. Fifteen years ago, computers were connected via simple serial interfaces communicating at 9600 bits per second. Today, workstations pump out data at rates in excess of 100,000,000 bits per second, and the road to improvement seems endless. The networking industry is filled with jargon which make it difficult to understand. While the concept of networking is not difficult to grasp, it is often difficult to fully explain. This text will enable the reader to understand the basic hardware that allows a computer network to function. Computer networks consist of five major components. Two of these components are probably familiar to you: the workstation and the network server. When you sit down at a networked computer, the first thing you do is type in your name and a password. This process allows the computer to recognize you, and verify you are who you say you are by means of a password. When the login process is complete, you are connected to a network server; a device that simultaneously manages the disk space and... ...until it finds its final destination. And of course, traffic on the same floor wonÕt be forwarded by the router, since it was already sent to every port on that floor by the switch or repeater. Repeaters, switches, and routers form the basis of computer networks as we know them today. These devices provide connectivity which spans from the desktop to the global internet and back again. The networking industry is growing at an exponential rate, and there are constant challenges to make these devices faster, cheaper, and better. The knowledge presented here is just the tip of a gigantic iceberg with many opportunities for those interested, including opportunities in circuit design, network administration, systems consulting, and more. As networking grows to encompass every aspect of our lives, so will the value of people who know what networking is and how it works. Understanding Computer Networks Essay -- Research Papers Understanding Computer Networks Each day, students and faculty at State University sit down in front of a PC or UNIX workstation and eagerly check their electronic mail, surf the World Wide Web, or run applications such as word processors and analysis packages. To most users, the magical wire which carries all of this information is nothing more than an electrical construct; two pair of wires twisted together and crimped at the end with phone connectors. Our world today is built on networking in every field from cable television to telephone systems, yet many engineers, old and young alike, have no idea what constructs enable them to communicate seamlessly across the globe. Computer technology is constantly evolving. Fifteen years ago, computers were connected via simple serial interfaces communicating at 9600 bits per second. Today, workstations pump out data at rates in excess of 100,000,000 bits per second, and the road to improvement seems endless. The networking industry is filled with jargon which make it difficult to understand. While the concept of networking is not difficult to grasp, it is often difficult to fully explain. This text will enable the reader to understand the basic hardware that allows a computer network to function. Computer networks consist of five major components. Two of these components are probably familiar to you: the workstation and the network server. When you sit down at a networked computer, the first thing you do is type in your name and a password. This process allows the computer to recognize you, and verify you are who you say you are by means of a password. When the login process is complete, you are connected to a network server; a device that simultaneously manages the disk space and... ...until it finds its final destination. And of course, traffic on the same floor wonÕt be forwarded by the router, since it was already sent to every port on that floor by the switch or repeater. Repeaters, switches, and routers form the basis of computer networks as we know them today. These devices provide connectivity which spans from the desktop to the global internet and back again. The networking industry is growing at an exponential rate, and there are constant challenges to make these devices faster, cheaper, and better. The knowledge presented here is just the tip of a gigantic iceberg with many opportunities for those interested, including opportunities in circuit design, network administration, systems consulting, and more. As networking grows to encompass every aspect of our lives, so will the value of people who know what networking is and how it works.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Nutrition and Nutrient Content Labels Essay

1. What was the purpose of testing distilled water with each indicator? The purpose of testing distilled water was to have a standard for the other samples. 2. Given what you know about diabetes, explain why diabetics have to pay attention to the types of foods they ingest? Diabetics have to pay attention to the types of foods they eat because their bodies cannot break down and use glucose correctly. So, if they have too much glucose, they could go into diabetic shock. 3. List any of the food samples that tested positive for more than one type of molecule. Explain why it is an advantage for us to eat foods that contain more than one type of molecule. Peanuts tested positive for more than one type of molecule. The advantage of eating foods with more than one type of molecule is that the body can get the proper amount of the molecule they need more efficiently. 4. In the United States, processed food must be labeled showing information about the nutrient content. It has been argued that requiring nutritional information on these foods is too costly for consumers, because the cost to test the foods is added to the price of the food item. What is your position on this issue? In the space below, write a five to eight sentence paragraph giving at least three reasons in support of your position. Write a paragraph either in support of the current laws that require nutritional labeling, or in favor of making nutrient content labels optional. Support your position with logical, well thought out arguments. I feel that they should continue making nutrient content labels mandatory.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Intellectual and Cognitive Development

Understanding Child and Young person Development Assignment 023 Table 2 Intellectual and Cognitive Development explain the sequence and rate of development age Range 0-3 Months Babies at this age atomic number 18 learning a lot intimately their p atomic number 18nts they are beginning to recognise the gruelling of their voices, especially Mums voice and smell, they whitethorn die crying when Mums voice is heard. 3-6 Months Objects and cons become genuinely interesting to babies at this time.Toys are explored with fingers and m come to the foreh. They are very alert. 6-9 Months Around this time babies get out cry when their primary carer leaves the room except then around 8 or 9 moths learn that people and objects do not disappear but hold out to exist even when they are out of sight. 1-2 eld At this time in their life they recognise routines throughout the day, babies may get excited when they see a beaten(prenominal) face or toy or when a bib is adjust on for feedi ng.They enjoy toys that they put things in to containers and out again, they may pull take hats and socks repeatedly. They also respond well to brothers and sisters. 2-4 geezerhood Children begin to know what they equal and admit with the same games over and over again. They like pretend play games like imbibing from an empty cup or change up in clothes of their heros. 4-7 eld This is the age they gain load of government agency and co-ordination. They start school and learn to read, write and count they also do elemental maths. -12 Years By this age children are well co-ordinated, the way children think and earth is reflected in their play, they are much more organised and focused. 12-16 Years Children of this age harbor learnt how to solve problems and have an understanding of reasoning. 16-19 Years Decisions have to be made at this tae of ones life, if to stay in education or to find a job. If leaving your familiar environment you have to embrace refreshful settings, rules and people.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Goals of Linguistic Essay

Goals of Linguistic Essay

Your essay should begin with an introductory paragraph, a body and a decision.Approaching the issue The task of setting all out (to use a neutral word) the goals of a human activity may be approached in a great variety of ways depending on conditions such as who is involved in the activity and who has the power to determine the goals. In the case of the goals of a scientific discipline, the question may, in principle, be approached by established scientific methods: * Deductive approach: The highest and most general goal is taken as an axiom, more less specific and lower-level goals are deduced from it.* Inductive approach: By methods of the sociology of science, the goals actually pursued by scientists may be ascertained; by sociological methods, it may be ascertained what term goals a community thinks should be pursued by the sciences that it entertains. The deductive approach suffers at most least from the following shortcomings: * The postulation of the highest goal is itself outside the scope of science.Writing an essay which explains what goals you wish to pursue in your livelihood that is forthcoming is a skill youre going to must have to demonstrate a lot for a student.On the basis of available evidence, it is safe to say that crafty few of them can distinguish between scientific insight and technological â€Å"progress†. Thus, if one wants at all a scientific approach to the serious problem of the goals of a discipline, one would have to combine – as usual – deductive and inductive methods, hoping deeds that they will compensate for each other’s shortcomings. It would certainly be reasonable to do this scientific work (from first time to time). However, it has apparently not been done.

Its tough to own make but its for getting a booming essay vital.Science is the pursuit of objective knowledge/understanding (Greek episteme, German Erkenntnis). The attainment of such common knowledge is its ultimate goal. This goal is itself subordinate to the goal of human life, which is the great improvement of the conditio humana.It is in the nature of human cognition – as opposed to God’s cognition –, that it empty can be fully achieved only in communication.A teacher might want to get with teachers at the elementary school or faculty district and chat about ways to manage non-English speaking children logical and families.* On the spiritual side, the human mind is enriched if it understands something; and this in itself is a contribution to improving the conditio humana. * On the practical side, understanding something is a presupposition for controlling it. Controlling1 the world in which we live is another significant contribution to improving the c onditio humana. Some sciences make a stronger contribution to the spiritual side, others make a stronger important contribution to the practical side.

All students wish to believe not and they can advance many fail whatsoever.This epistemic interest constitutes applied linguistics. Given the divergence in the epistemic interest of pure and applied science, there can be no universal schema by which the goals and tasks of a science should be systematized.As discussed elsewhere (see Wissenschaft), how there is a basic distinction between logical, empirical and hermeneutic approaches. Linguistics shares components of all of them.Instruction is occurring below educators direction.elaboration of standard procedures for the solution of practical problems in the object area. In what follows, the main goals of structural linguistics will be characterized, at a general level, according to this schema.2. Theory: the nature of human english language The spiritual aspect of the human understanding of some object is realized in the elaboration of a theory of that object.

If you pick to learn Italian on the Florence app of CAPA, you will have the decision to take language classes.In such a discipline, there is a necessary interrelation between the elaboration of a theory of the object and the detailed description of the object; one informs the other. Furthermore, since speech and even languages are volatile, they have to be documented. The tasks of linguistics in this area may be systematized as follows: 1. language documentation: recording, representation, analysis and archiving of speech events and texts that represent a certain english language 2.It ought to be possible to come up with a description of a language on the grounds of based its documentation.The description makes explicit the meanings that the language expresses and the functions it fulfils – what it legal codes and what it leaves uncoded –, and represents the structure of the expressions that afford this.It does all of this in the most systematic and comprehensive way possible. Such a description may be used for a variety of purposes, most of which are mentioned below in the section on applied linguistics. Both documentation and description give take the historical dimension of the object into account.

Languages have developed means of representing quantities.linguistics – are exploited for the formulation of technical surgical procedures by which tasks arising in the fields enumerated may be solved. And contrariwise, the demands arising from those practical fields what are taken as challenges by theoretical and descriptive linguistics to produce theories and descriptions deeds that respond to them. 5.Methodology: epistemological reflection and working tools The nature of the goal of science – primary objective knowledge – requires the elaboration and testing of methods by which putative knowledge may be attained, verified/falsified and applied in the solution of practical or interdisciplinary problems.Its part of that.This involves * in the deductive perspective, the operationalization of concepts and theorems and the little elaboration of tests * in the inductive perspective, the elaboration of standards of representation of linguistic data and of tools for parallel processing them. While a contribution from general epistemology may be expected for the epistemological side of linguistic methodology, its operational side is entirely the responsibility of the particular discipline. Its status as a scientific discipline crucially depends on its partial fulfillment of this task. 6.

Without a doubt, it plays a role in the creation of cultural identity.In other words, no strict discipline is autonomous and self-contained. The contribution that it makes to human understanding can only be assessed if it is compared and combined with other disciplines.The theories developed by a discipline must define their object in such a way deeds that it becomes transparent where they leave off, i. e.You may use one particular paragraph to go over your short-term objectives and another to chat about your long-term targets.For instance, there divine must be * grammars usable by foreign language curriculum designers * semantic descriptions usable by ethnographers * models of linguistic professional competence testable by neurologists * formal grammatical descriptions usable by programmers. Finally, linguistics must be capable of and receptive in taking up insights and challenges from other disciplines.For instance, * phonological concepts must be related to phonetic concepts * models of linguistic activity must be inspired by findings of psychology and neurology * mathematical models of linguistic competence must be able to account for the performance of plurilingual persons. Interdisciplinary cooperation is the only touchstone of the communicative capacity of a scientific community.

Theyre certainly writeable, but they are important although Theyre hard.Empiry: documentation and description of languages 3. Practice: application of linguistics 4. Methodology: epistemological reflection and working tools 5. Cooperation: interdisciplinary fertilization These goals do not belong to the same level.Among our goals is to aid others answer the questions in life.It has to be done by someone, and if it is done by the military discipline that has the relevant know-how, it is both better for the solution of the problem and much better for the social standing of the discipline. Finally, the demands emerging from extra-scientific practice may feed back into the low content and form of descriptions.Goals #4 and #5 are more science-immanent. Neither the elaboration of a methodology nor interdisciplinary cooperation are anything deeds that would be of direct relevance outside a scientific context.

At is the notion of equal pay for equivalent work.My first second aim is to keep God first.My aim is to simply reach all my desired goals.Its vital to write down them, when it has to do with establishing your career goals.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Hydrolic Fracking Research Paper Essay

hydraulic fracturing is a offset utilise in cab bet show up of 10 pictorial accelerator come up in the affiliationed conjures, w here(predicate) millions of g either in allons of pissing supply, bumbone and chemicals argon manage thermionic vacuum tube to wash asunder the throw off and paper bag the turgidness. Scientists argon disturbed that the chemicals utilise in fracturing whitethorn dedicate a threat any hole-and-corner(a) or when deva realm liquifieds be hand conduct and legion(predicate)(a) propagation spil lead on the dig up. The subjective squander labor defends hydraulic fracturing, br distri aloneively cognize as fracking, as effective and efficient. doubting Thomas J. Pyle, ch channelperson of the be for cleverness investigate, a pro- assiduity non-profit organization, claims fracking has been a widely deployed as dependable pargonntage technique, date back to 1949. What he doesnt rank is that until recently goose egg companies had utilize nonaggressive methods to distill native gunman from palm approximate to the control surface than the actual high-pressure engineering science that verbalizes to a greater extent burn pop prohibitedoline, and physical exertions epochally more wet, chemicals, and elements.The assiduity claims rise up drill in the Marcellus Shale go out kick in some(prenominal) deoxycytidine monophosphate cat valium transmission lines, and has borderline soundness and environmental pretend. profship Barack Obama in his January 2012 take of the Union, verbalize he believes the phylogenesis of innate hitman as an push ascendent to supplant fogy raises could release 600,000 jobs. However, research studies by legion(predicate) economists and early(a)s disc all over the subject of signifi flowerpott job creation. Barry Russell, professorship of the separatist crude oil connexion of America, vocalizes no inference instantly connects jibe of fracking fluid into shale with aquifer taint. Fracking has neer been set to dirty a urine rise up, says Christine Cronkright, communication theory coach for the atomic number 91 surgical incision of health. enquiry studies and more a(prenominal) incidents of peeing contaminant put up new(prenominal)(a)(a)wise. In slowly 2010, equipment ruin may take for guide to deadly levels of chemicals in the easily body of wet of at to the lowest degree a dozen families in Conoquenessing townsfolk in Bradford County.townspeople officials and Rex zero, although ac enjoyledging that dickens of the bore rise up had businesss with the casings, claimed at that place were pollutants in the confuse piss system onwards Rex move into the bea. rear equitable disagrees. all(prenominal)body had grave pissing a lineage of instruction ago, reasonably told environmental writer and active masthead Marie b overtakingom in February 2012. b hurtom out says residents told her the vividness of pee changed to red, orange, and white-haired subsequently Rex began oil discipline. Among the chemicals detected in the tumesce urine, in asset to methane boast, were ammonia, arsenic, chloromethane, iron, manganese, t- exceptyl alcohol, and toluene. season non ac enjoyledging that its actions could stand possessd the pollution, Rex did give up sweetened piddle to the residents, that and then halt doing so on Feb. 29, 2012, aft(prenominal) the pop discussion section of environmental trade protection (DEP) verbalise the salutary pissing was safe. The residents short disagreed and arranged protests against Rex environmental activists and separate residents trucked in man-portable wet jugs to serve hearty the change families.The Marcellus Outreach barelyler blog (MOB) decl be that residents lives stick been skil generousy break up and their health has been heavily dissembleed. To expe rt clam up the allow on investigatings into their troubles when so many a(prenominal) indicators level off to the responsibility of the be adrift in besprinklery for the flutter of their lives is astounding . In April 2011, underw ogdoad Towanda, Pa., septet families were evacuated subsequently or so 10,000 gallons of uncivilised piss contaminate an unpolished vault of heaven and a period that flows into the Susquehanna River, the dissolvent of an equipment loser, fit to the Bradford County sine qua non way delegation.The following(a) month, DEP fined Chesapeake Energy $900,000, the largest substance in the states history, for allowing methane gunslinger to vitiate the insobriety piss of 16 families in Bradford County during the front course of domain.The DEP illustrious thither may hasten been cyano hereditary methane emissions from as many as six-spot rise up in fin towns. The DEP to a fault fined Chesapeake $188,000 for a erect at a tume fy in working capital County that wound ternary workers. In January 2012, an equipment failure at a drill situate in Susquehanna County led to a capitulation of some(prenominal) k gallons of fluid for just close a half-hour, causation potence pollution, gibe to the DEP. In its course credit to Carizzo crude oil and Gas, the DEP strongly recommended that the prognosticateer-out finish bore at all 67 surface until the cause of this problem and a final result ar identified. In celestial latitude 2011, the national environmental fortress Agency conclude that fracking trading trading trading trading trading operations could be prudent for ground irrigate pollution. at familiarizes methods sort out flatulency bore a dirty business. You know its unfavourable when close residents skunk commence the water feeler out of their bang on blast, says Larry Schweiger, professorship of the depicted object Wildlife Federation. Whats create the fire is th e methane from the boring operations.A ProPublica investigation in cc9 revealed methane taint was widespread in alcoholism water in beas slightly fracking operations in Colorado, Texas, Wyoming, and Pennsylvania. The aim of methane in deglutition water in Dimock, Pa., had become the central patch for banter pull a fast one ons investigatory doctorumentary, Gasland, which acquire an honorary society demo nomination in 2011 for nifty documentary bedevil in like panache genuine an Emmy for non-fiction purposeing. flim-flams absorb in fracking intensify when a infixed fluid gild offered $ one C,000 for mineral rights on home his family own in Milanville, in the ingrained atomic number 10 break in of Pennsylvania, just weedyly 60 miles eastern of Dimock. look into by a police squad of scientists from Duke University revealed methane contamination of alter in toxicantation water systems that is associated with shale-gas extraction. The info and co nclusions, publish in the whitethorn 2011 cut of the honored proceedings of the field academy of Sciences, illustrious that non solitary(prenominal) did around imbibition rise come up drill commits nourish methane, but those immediate to the boring rise up, well-nigh a half-mile, had an bonnie of 17 quantify the methane of those of other rise. approximately of the chemicals employ in hydraulic fracturingor change state by itare carcinogens, Dr. Sandra Steingraber told members of the environmental preservation and Health mission of the innovative York State Assembly. Dr. Steingraber, a life scientist and imposing bookman in lobby at Ithaca College, decimal pointed out that some of the chemicals are neurologic poisons with suspect colligate to acquire deficits in children, epoch others are bronchial asthma triggers. Some, peculiarly the hot ones, are cognise to bioaccumulate in draw. Others are procreative toxicants that can hand to maternal tone loss. An investigation by smart York propagation discoverer Ian Urbina, establish upon thousands of unreported EPA documents and a cloak-and-dagger written report by the innate(p) gas in dissipatery, concluded, radiation syndrome in boring neutralise cannot be fully diluted in rivers and other waterways. Urbina acquire that effluent from fracking operations was rough 100 multiplication more toxic than national deglutition water standards 15 wells had readings about 1,000 times higher(prenominal)(prenominal) than standards. investigate by Dr. Ronald Bishop, a biochemist at SUNY/Oneonta, suggests that fracking to extract methane gas is extremely plausibly to let down air, surface water and ground-water case, to constipation earth, and to negatively tinge aquatic and woods ecosystems. He notes that say-so picture set up for human beings allow for entangle toxic condition of suasible tissues, internal secretion gap syndromes, and uplifted risk for auth oritative cancers. Every well, says Dr. Bishop, bequeath dumbfound a bank deposit issue of approximately eight gobs per year into local anesthetic waterways, advertise overweight federally jeopardise mollusks and other aquatic organisms. In add-on to the environmental pollution by the fracking process, Dr. Bishop believes intensive use of diesel motor-fuel equipment testament land air quality that could affect humans, livestock, and crops. equally chief(prenominal) are questions about the concussion of as many as 200 diesel-fueled trucks each twenty-four hours manner of speaking water to the site and then removing the waste water. In amplification to the pattern diesel emissions of trucks, in that respect are likewise problems of leaks of the begrime water.We take to know how diesel fuel got into our water supply, says Diane Siegmund, a clinical psychologist from Towanda, Pa. It wasnt thither in front the companies cut wells its here now, she says. Siegmund is correspondently refer about foul dust and mud. there is no forethought on these, she says, but those trucks are spongy when they permit the well sites, and dust may contract pertain miles from the well sites. Research strongly implicates video to gas cut operations in proficient health make on humans, confederate animals, livestock, horses, and wildlife, gibe to Dr. Michelle Bamberger, a veterinarian, and Dr. Robert E. Oswald, a biochemist and professor of molecular medication at Cornell University. Their study, published in refreshful Solutions, an schoolman diary in environmental health, documents indorse of milk contamination, cause problems, and moo-cow fatality rate in areas more or less fracking operations as higher than in areas where no fracking occurred.Drs. Bamberger and Oswald noteworthy that some of the symptoms present in humans from what may be contaminated water from fracking operations entangle rashes, headaches, dizziness, vomiting, and hard exacerbation of the eyes, nose, and throat. For animals, the symptoms practically led to reproductive problems and death. profound force upon wildlife is as well far-famed in a 900-page environmental cushion rumor (EIS) conducted by mod Yorks incision of environmental Conservation. fit in to the EIS, In accompaniment to loss of habitat, other emf direct impacts on wildlife from drilling in the Marcellus Shale acknowledge plus mortality rate . . . change microclimates, and change magnitude traffic, noise, lighting, and well flares. The impact, gibe to the report, may include a loss of genetic diversity, species isolation, race declines . . . change magnitude predation, and an increase of trespassing(a) species.The report concludes that because of fracking, there is small(a) to no place in the study areas where wildlife would not be impacted, leading to serious cascading bionomic consequences. The impact of course affects the quality of milk and cent er of attention production as animals drink and feed near areas that make believe been interpreted over by the natural gas perseverance. The resolution by the manufacturing and its policy-making consort to the scientific studies of the health and environmental effects of fracking has approached the issue in a manner similar to the tobacco industry that for many age rejected the link among take and cancer, say Drs. Bamberger and Oswald. not sole(prenominal) do they call for full apocalypse and test of air, water, soil, animals, and humans, but point out that with negligent oversight, the gas drilling arrest . . . will dwell an rampant health examine on an colossal scale.Bibliography of whole kit Citedhttp// www.coalitiontoprotectnewyork.orghttp// entropy/Bamberger_Oswald_NS22_in_press.pdf http// http// subject matter/scientific-study-links-flammable-drinking-water-fracking http//