Saturday, August 31, 2019
In these chapters, Hester visits the governorÃ¢â¬â¢s mansion. She wants to find out if the rumors that Pearl might be taken away from her are true. When she finally meets with the governor she begs him to not take her daughter away from her. They agree to not separate the mother and child, and Pearl seems to take a liking to the governor. Chillingworth tries to convince the governor to reopen the case of revealing who the father of Pearl is, but he refuses.Chillingworth changed his name upon his arrival to Boston to hide his true identity, even though Hester knows his true Identity, and she was sworn to secrecy. He is known as the doctor of the town, and because the town has very little medical help, he is openly welcome. When Dimmesdale begins to have lots of chest pains, the doctor moves in with him to make sure everything is ok. Even though the minister doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t trust the doctor, because he has no reason for his distrust, he still does what he says.The ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s si ckness causes him to give more powerful sermons, mostly focusing in sins. At night, he cant sleep and he begins to have visions. He has a vision of Hester pointing at her scarlet letter, and then pointing at the clergyman. The minister believes that he is jus delusional and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay any mind to his visions. He then begins to torture himself, by whipping himself, not eating, and not sleeping. He then thinks he knows how to remedy his pain. He decides to hold a vigil, on the same scaffold where Hester had suffered her punishment years ago
Friday, August 30, 2019
The purpose of this lab was to see what colors are characteristic of particular metallic ions in a flame test and use their characteristic color to identify other elements. Another purpose is to understand how fireworks work. This experiment will help one understand how a flame test is performed and that every metal has a unique bright line spectra. This means a bright line spectra can be used to identify any element. This information can be used to identify elements in space to tell whether a planet has oxygen on it or not. If one can tell if a planet has oxygen on it based on its bright line spectra, research could be done to tell if people can live on the planet or not. This would be a huge advance in science if it was possible to tell if people can live on other planets by knowing the elements on the other planets. This would solve the problem of the world becoming over-populated and would help prevent the spread of disease. Introduction- The purpose of this lab was to see what colors are characteristic of particular metallic ions in a flame test and use their characteristic color to identify other elements. Another purpose is to understand how fireworks work. A flame test is used to identify certain metals in a compound or single element.1 When an electron jumps up to a higher energy state the element is in its excited state. Elements are only in their excited for a brief moment. When the electron moves back down to a lower energy state, it emits light and produce a flame color.1 Sometimes there is more than one flame color because an electron might go from the 4s orbital then go to the 2p orbital which means two colors will be produced. Every element emits a different flame color or colors. These colors can be put on a bright line spectra which shows every color that the element produces in a flame test.1 Each element has a unique bright line spectra and thus can be identified by using its bright line spectra. When the element is in a compound, it can be burned to produce the flame. The color of the flame corresponds with each element. When there is an unknown compound, the metal can be found by using previous data from previous tests. By looking at the color you can see if it matches any previous tests and possibly find the name of the metal. Flame tests can also be used to find the color of fireworks one wants to use. By using the metal that emits the color one wants in fireworks, one can get the desired color. This experiment will be conducted using the same spatula, the same Bunsen burner, the same kind of acid and nitrate bonded to every one of the metals. It will also be conducted with everyone in the lab using safety goggles and everyone wearing closed toed shoes. There are no relevant waste concerns in this lab This experiment will show that every element has a different bright line spectra and this can be used to identify elements in space or anywhere. It will also show that flame tests can be used to make certain colored fireworks. I predict that all of the metals tested will emit different colors of light. I also predict that all of the metals will emit a color in the visible spectrum. Materials- Ã¢â¬ ¢Chemical Splash Goggles Ã¢â¬ ¢Well Plate Ã¢â¬ ¢Marker Pen Ã¢â¬ ¢Barium Nitrate (Ba(NO3)2) Ã¢â¬ ¢Copper Nitrate (Cu(NO3)2) Ã¢â¬ ¢Strontium Nitrate (Sr(NO3)2) Ã¢â¬ ¢Lithium Nitrate (Li(NO3)) Ã¢â¬ ¢Potassium Nitrate (K(NO3)) Ã¢â¬ ¢Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Ã¢â¬ ¢Calcium Nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) Ã¢â¬ ¢Nichrome wire loop Ã¢â¬ ¢Beaker, 50-ml Ã¢â¬ ¢Hydrochloric Acid Ã¢â¬ ¢Lab Burner Ã¢â¬ ¢Wash Bottle with distilled water Ã¢â¬ ¢1 Unknown Solution Experimental- The safety equipment was put on. The spatula was cleaned off to make sure there is no residue on it. The Bunsen burner was set up and the flame was adjusted to the desired height. One of the samples was put on theÃ spatula and the formula of the salt solution was recorded into Table 1. The spatula with the salt solution was put over the flame. The color of the flame was recorded in table 1. The spatula was put in hydrochloric acid, then put into water, and then put over the flame to burn off any residue from the salt solution. This procedure was repeated for the other seven salt solutions and the one unknown solution. The equipment was cleaned off and put away at the end of the experiment Data- Table 1: Table 2: Table 2: Test of Unknown Solution Unknown Color K(NO3) Light Orange Results and Discussion- The data in table 1 shows that every metal tested emits a different color during a flame test. This happens because every metal has a different bright line spectra. Table 2 shows that you can identify a metal in a compound by using a flame test. The metal in the compound was identified by the light orange color seen during the flame test. Table 1 proves my hypothesis to be correct. Conclusion- The purpose of this lab was to see what colors are characteristic of particular metallic ions in a flame test and use their characteristic color to identify other elements. Another purpose was to understand how fireworks work. This experiment can help to identify elements in space to help scientists know whether a planet has oxygen or not. It can also help one determine what metal to use in fireworks to portray a certain color. The experiment was conducted by burning a salt and recording the color of the flame. This experiment showed that every metal emits a different color and this proves the hypothesis to be correct, that every metal emits a different color when put into a flame. This experiment also shows that a metal can be identified by looking at the color of the flame and matching it to previous data results. This also proves my hypothesis to be correct. Table 1 and Table 2Ã prove both of my hypotheses to be correct. More experiments can be done with machines to find the exact wavelengths of light for every element. If the exact wavelengths can be found, it would be easier to identify elements with a flame test. Possible sources of error in this experiment were that the nichrome wire may not have been fully cleaned off every time, the color might have looked different because of other light sources, and there could have been particles in the bottom of the Bunsen burner. Acknowledgments: The author of this paper thanks Union Springs High School for use of their facilities to conduct this experiment with.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
DEAF REFLECTION #2 - Coursework Example The writer tries to envision if the whole world was a bilingual community where everybody was taught sign language in the same manner they were taught how to speak using their tongues This is an important notion as people were be able to communicate easily with their and extended family of the Vineyard society. This means that there was no language barrier, and by proxy, no social barrier in this society. The writer acknowledges that there were no difficulties that the deaf children suffered on the Vineyard as the society acted as an extended family for them. From childhood, one could obtain families where one or two children in the family were deaf so this would not be a major concern in another child was born deaf. The deaf children stood a better of continuing with their education than students who could be able to hear. This is evident when the writer claims that Ã¢â¬Å"the recommended period of instruction in Hartford was five years but education for the deaf was available up to ten yearsÃ¢â¬ . On social aspects, the deaf on MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard married freely. Though the number of children that were born deaf was quite high and in an alarming rate. The deaf were also able to be independent as they were able to make a living of the talents and skills they had for example a carpenter. With respect to families, the fertility was higher and there was much comparison between the children who are born when hearing and those who were deaf. The Vineyard was a safe heaven for the deaf. However s time went by things started to change, to them deafness was treated like a stigma ans something to be ashamed of. In schools, other student made fun of the deaf students as the student who could hear made fun of them and nobody wanted to learn sign language anymore. This forced the society to open schools for the deaf and lead to a total split-up of those who could hear and the deaf in the society. A perception that the society tends to uphold up to
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Dollar versus Yen -The Road Ahead - Essay Example Interest-rate futures demonstrate that the traders are certain the Fed will increase its benchmark to 4.75 percent on March 28, and predict about a 65 percent chance of another increase to 5 percent at the May meeting. However the outlook was not the same say in October 2005 when Fed was expected to go in for graduated dosages of increase in interest rate in keeping with the trend began since June 2004. The dollar had then risen 2.3 percent against the yen since the end of June 2005. The dollar ran its third straight quarterly gain, reported in October 2005, against the yen, the longest winning streak since 2001, as the Federal Reserve stuck to its policy of ''measured" increases in interest rates. The markets had then expected the dollar to rally to about 115 yens. The yield advantage of 10-year US Treasury notes with Japan had averaged 2.87 percentage points in 2005 year and reached as much as 3.27 percentage points on March 28 2005. As a result of these Japanese investors were buy ing the dollar to purchase overseas assets, such as Treasuries strengthening interest in dollar.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Critical Thinking Questions - Strategy and Competition - Essay Example When an organization is in trouble the management can first think about retrenchment. Retrenchment is about making specific changes through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining profits. When an organization is specifically weak in a strong industry then the management can think about regrouping the strengths and evaluating the strategy at present to make specific changes. This process will highlight the areas that are weak and needs restructuring. Retrenchment helps in slowing down the decline in profits in the short run and in the long run when combined with other proactive strategies helps in the reversal of the profitability position. When the retrenchment strategy does not work, the management can try divestiture. Divestiture means selling off a weaker decision or a part of the organization. When it is distinct that a particular division is responsible for the overall loss of the organization the management can think about divestiture. When both the above said strategies do not work then the last option is the liquidation. Liquidation is recognition of defeat and is a very emotionally challenging strategy. When the damage can be controlled through alternative strategy, liquidation can be the last option. Change in relationships: The relationships within the organizations and with the external environment have changed because of disappearing levels of management. An organization depends on information technology, the internet, organizations are becoming flatter and leadership from top down has become obsolete. Disappearance of geographic distance: Resources are outsourced from companies across the world and formation of strategic partnerships has been enabled only because of internet connectivity. By outsourcing of services and procurement of the resources from the point of origin, cost is saved for the companies. Customer satisfaction: By
Monday, August 26, 2019
Giving Birth Control to Teenagers - Essay Example This essay considers questions of teenage birth control and argues that it is in the best interest of the country to permit teenagerÃ¢â¬â¢s access to it. One of the primary arguments against providing birth control to teenagers is that it encourages them to engage in sexual relations. When one considers this argument, itÃ¢â¬â¢s demonstrated to be completely erroneous. The human sexual drive is one of the primary instinctual motivations and as such teenagers will continue to experiment with sex whether effective contraception is made available or not. Indeed, teenage pregnancy rates are on the rise (Dawn). In these regards, itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that policymakers must make a shift in their perspectives from viewing birth control as a harmful element, to one that can actually aid teenagers who are already engaging in sexual practices. The idea that birth control contributes to teenage sex is in large part derived from a naive notion of teenage sexual norms. Policymakers are assuming th at in the process of educating teenagers of their birth control options, the teenagers will suddenly become sexually aware and decide to engage in sexual practices. In reality teenagers are not this naive. In prohibiting birth control then policy makers are essentially increasing the chances of teenage pregnancy, as teenagers will increasingly resort to riskier methods of intercourse.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Race and education - Essay Example er hand, there are a number of things for identification in the discovery of some of the impacts of British imperialism on the educational systems of the region, as well as the impact of the education systems on its colonies and dominions. A puzzling discovery of the education system in Britain is the fact that there is a considerable absence of a broad historiography on the school curriculum in Britain during the late imperial period. This possibility considers the concerns of the British experiences prior to the year 1945, given that there is a strong emphasis on the presence of cultural assimilation as well as migration into the country. This emphasis is evident in some of the writings on the history of Europe from the early imperial period to the mid-twentieth century. However, a historical consideration of childhood education is achievable through looking into the education systems in the colonial settings, which provides some assistance in the questioning of the pedagogy as well as issues concerning imperialism. On the other hand, there are considerations that the British public schools were responsible for training some of the future imperialists during this period since a number of the students in the Victoria n public schools later served as official in the government and in the British Empire. When looking at the education systems present during the imperial period, questions do not only arise on issues concerning power or imperialism, but there are questions that arise on the influence the schools curricula had on the negative influence of race. The main characteristic of the schools in Britain, whether it was amongst the poor population or the heathen in some of its colonies was the creation of an ordered environment (Barber, 1994 138). The perception at the time was that schools were avenues for creating an orderly and educable child, despite the fact that they might have been experiencing some form of disorder in their homes. The quest that the
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Telecommuting and the mobile worker - Essay Example Regarding shifts, since telecommuters work from homes or nearby telework centres, those only available during non-conventional hours still have the flexibility to maintain their lifestyles and work their shifts too (Ellison, 2004). During disasters or when employees cannot access the central workplace, it is helpful if the firm has a separately located data bank, back-up servers and disaster recovery plans that allow employees access from any other location upon appropriate authorisation. Four advantages of telecommuting to the IT manager are reduced needs and costs associated with relocating equipment; fewer interruptions; higher capability to acquire talent; and reduced software license costs for personal devices (Hill et al, 2002). Since employees are free to work from locations of their convenience, they will find their own ways of mobility and hooking up to the infrastructure. This leads to fewer interruptions that arise when employees have to be moved to different areas of the office and having to be set up afresh. Since employees do not have to be in the same geographical region as the headquarters, appropriate talent can be sought from anywhere and contribute to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity. Finally, employees will often be responsible for upgrading their personal devices to keep up with technology and continue having access to their working information and stay connected. The disadvantages include the initial sourcing of appropriate technology; security threats; challenges in actively and continuously connecting employees; and efficient tracking of employees. Acquiring and implementing the technology to support telecommuting seamlessly is a burden to the IT budget. Then, since the IT manager has no foolproof way of controlling who shares remote devices with employees and accesses confidential information from them, security may be compromised. Further, since employees are only concerned with getting their
Friday, August 23, 2019
Policy Issue Paper - Essay Example The energy security is a very vital issue and deserving of its inclusion in the State of the Union address because it is concerned with the most valuable component of American life, - the energy which fuels the entire US nation, from the west to the east coast, to life. Without this energy source, life in America and everywhere in the world will virtually halt to a standstill. Oil is the chief energy source of the United States and not surprisingly, US is the top oil user in the world, guzzling 20, 588,000 barrels of oil per day according to a 2006 statistic (EIA 1). The problem however with this valuable fossil fuel is that not only is it a potential powerful political tool but that its very availability is now in question. There are claims that oil world resources are dwindling although some quarters like the Cambridge Energy Research Associates are disputing this CERA 2006). It can be fairly said however that the issue of global warming is by now beyond dispute although largely still unacknowledged. Recent scientific studies has established that the burning of fossil fuel emits carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and, along with other greenhouse gases, prevents sunlight from being reflected out of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere causing global warming. A hot planet in turn, disturbs climate cycles, melts the ice in the north and south poles altering the water-land ratio, and changes ecosystems (NRDC 2007). With these problems, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a surprise therefore that the President, in talking about energy security, primarily focused on reducing oil consumption and specifically suggested alternatives like the Ã¢â¬Å"funding of technologies that can generate coal power while capturing carbon emissionsÃ¢â¬ , increasing Ã¢â¬Å"the use of renewable power and emission-free nuclear power,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"investing in advanced battery technology and renewable fuels,Ã¢â¬ creating a Ã¢â¬Å"new
Business Forms Evaluation and Recommendation - Essay Example If Betty decides to take in someone else, then the form would be some kind of partnership, or a corporation, or a limited liability company or LLC, all of them valid legal business forms, and all of them placing some level of liability on the individual persons forming the business when it comes to being answerable to their customers and suppliers. Given that Betty does not seem to have that much experience with running a coffee business, then it seems to make sense, given the options available, to form the business as a franchise. Moreover, for reasons that are to be explored further in the other questions, the best form is one where Betty runs the business as a single proprietorship (Spadea, Lanard & Lignana, n.d.; Sanders and Lambert, 2007). There are several options for Ã¢â¬Å"partnersÃ¢â¬ or people to take in by Betty into the business. John, her husband, is one, ready to supply some capital for the business. Alice, the sister of Betty, is another. Erma, Betty's neighbor, is yet another, though she is not Christian. The religious inclination is one consideration in choosing someone if one is to make an assumption with regard to how religious inclination translates to business, moral and related values. Other issues, such as the level of commitment and energy that the different people options are ready to pour into the business, also matter. As well, domestic issues that can limit involvement and can constitute a conflict of interest are also pertinent considerations. None of the three options or Ã¢â¬Å"partnersÃ¢â¬ are completely free of issues. John has the money, but will not commit any time or attention to the business. It helps though that he is the significant person in Betty's life, being the husband. That vital relationship can make up for any lack of commitment in terms of giving time to operate the business. Alice, meanwhile, while potentially committed andÃ willing to give time and effort to operate the business with Betty, is constrained by a conflict of interest, the other party being family.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Resistance of a wire Essay We undertook an experiment to find the relationship between resistance and a length of wire. Equipment: Variable resister, Wire 1m long, Digital voltmeter, Digital ammeter, 4 X 1. 5 cell, 1m ruler, Connecting wires. Method We collected our equipment needed and set it out as the circuit diagram below. I started by drawing out my results table to record my results on. The headers for the columns where as follows: Length (cm), Current (A), Potential difference (V) and Resistance (I). At every 10cm we took a reading and entered it into our table. Some flickered between two values so I took both down. Starting at 1m and working down. On the second experiment I started at 10cm and worked the other way to see whether it affected the results. When using the variable resistor we kept it on the minimum resistance throughout the experiment. While taking the results we had more than one result for the current and potential difference, which in turn caused some results to have more than one resistance value. Because of this I had to alter our table slightly during the experiment to ensure we took down all the results. To ensure the test was as fair as possible I repeated the test to ensure the experiment was fair and true. Looking at my results in the table they are very similar which proves that it was fair. Results These tables show my results from the experiment and the sum for: V I R First experiment: Length (cm) Current (A) Second reading for (A) Potential difference (V) Resistance ? (I) Second result for (I). Second experiment: Length (cm) Current (A) Second reading for (A) Potential difference (V) Second result for (V) Resistance ? (I) Second result for (I) Third result for (I) Fourth result for (I) I have drawn graphs for these results: see appendix a and b. Analysis My results show that the resistant relates to the length of the wire used. As the current increases the potential difference does and the resistance decreases. As the length of wire is reduced the potential difference reduces and so does the current. There is a slight difference between our first and second experiment. Both graphs show that there is a definite pattern but there are some anomalies. The anomalies seem to be separate from the other results. But this anomaly happened on both experiments on 60cm. There may be some other reason for this. I cannot see why it should happen on both sets of results at the same measurement. Both graphs are similar and follow a very similar line. Graph A shows quite a straight line with only one less extreme anomaly where as graph B show a reasonably straight line with one major anomaly which stand out considerable from the rest. On both graphs the results take a wavelike form rather than a straight line. The results do to an extent follow Ohms law. On graph A, 4 of the plots run on the same line, which agrees with Ohms law, and graph B 4 plots do the same. The second graph started at a lower current and potential difference but I think it should be higher because of the use of the wire before which could have increased the temperature. On the second experiment there was more flickering on the ammeter and voltmeter, which caused the increase in the results. Although the flickering occurred it was constant. On table 1 the potential difference decreased in shorter stages that table 2. When plotting my results on a graph I had to take an average from my results. Conclusion Current id the flow of electrons around the circuit this is pushed by voltage. The resistance tries to oppose it. This is apparent from looking at our experiment results. The resistance stays constant as long as the component does not change its physical condition i. e. The wire does not get hot. George ohm was the first scientist to investigate this theory. The resistance is measured in Ohms Resistance at a constant temperature is proportional to potential difference. The relative size of the voltage and resistance decides how bit the current will be. By increasing the voltage more current will flow but by increasing the resistance the current is less. This is shown in our results. Our results agree with the theory. 100cm of wire = little current but a lot of P. D = lots of resistance 10cm of wire = lots of current but little P. D = little resistance This shows the longer the piece of wire the more resistance Wires of different material have different resistance: Copper wire I Steel wire V The graph shows above that cooper wire has a low resistance and is a good conductor. Steel has a higher resistance and a lower conductivity. Both wires have the same potential difference (voltage) across them. Wire A. I Wire B Wire C V As you can see above different wires have different resistance. Evaluation There were a few problems that occurred in our experiment such as the flickering of the ammeter and voltmeter, which caused us to have to take more than one result. On both graphs there was an anomaly on 60 cm. There may be some other reason for this. Both graphs are very similar and follow a very similar line. Graph A shows quite a straight line with only one anomaly where as graph B show a straight line with one major anomaly which stand out considerable from the rest. On 60cm the potential difference increased on both sets of results. The temperature of the wire was not taken to see whether it had increased in temperature during the experiment. It does not show increased resistance on the second table, which was taken straight after the first experiment, which could have affected it. By taking the temperature of the wire on the same resistance for a period of time we could see how long it takes for the temperature to increase and in turn for the resistance to increase. This could help with evaluating our results and also time the experiment to see how long the wire had current flowing through it and then if it had increased in temperature. The results are reasonably reliable because the do to an extent obey Ohms law. I think the reason for the unreliability could have been because the wire had changed its physical condition (got hotter). To further our investigation we could go on and use a longer piece of wire 2m and also use different types of wire such as steel and copper. Change the temperature of the wire because wire that is colder is a better conductor. I believe our results were reliable but need improving by the suggestions I have given above. Bibliography Hodder and Stoughton AQA GCSE Physics Class notesÃ CPG Revision and Practice Guide Alison Eatock GCSE Physics 30/11/03 Resistance of a wire 1 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Discussing The Challenges Faced In Business Most top management executive today are faced with challenge of creating better ways of doing business in doing this , the customers have becomes the direct focused .In fact ,most organisation today, opine that a companys success depend effectively on managing relationship with customers . In achieving this companies have adopted distinct electronic business application that would generally suit its mission and objective, E-business OBrien state is the use of the internet and other network application, to process data of customers and business partner within a new worked enterprise (OBrien, 2005) .Customer relationship management application has becomes a key element within e-business system which most organisation have already adopted. The Customer relationship management application has been developed by most software companies like oracle, Sales force ,SAP and Seibel .The focused of this paper though is greatly on CRM application called SAPCO developed by SAP and how a UK top home improvement companies ,BQ has been able to use it to develop that relationship with customers . 1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The analysis is this paper will show amongst other thing, how this application has accounted in many ways for the success and grow of customers loyalty of BQ over the years ,it will also look at the business challenge associated with the use of the system within BQ and by extension, the use of similar Customer relationship management systems supports by SAP in other organisation and importantly too, analyzing the ethical issues associated with technology. 1.2 METHODOLOGY A lot of recent articles and text books played a significant role in this work .Internet sources too ,cannot be underestimated alongside comments ,by way of interview conducted with some with some BQ staff who were there when the system was introduced and other who have been using the system for years now. 2.0 CRM TECHNOLOGY AND SAP Customer relationship management technology can up in the mid twentieth century as a result of the most management executive identifying the need to improved relationship with customer and in that way improve business efficiency. The general maxim that the customers are always right seemed to take a more descriptive place as companies were now committed on doing whatever it takes to deliver the promise made (Nguyen et al 2007) .This is where technology comes into pay to create this needs business value. This is also where to business executive brainstorming on aborting the best application that would enhance better control over their operation. Customer relationship management application help organisation assess customers loyalty and profitability on measures such as repeat purchase, dollars spent and longevity (Popovice et al 2003) It is important to note that Customer relationship management is like other E-commerce application, a combination of people, process and technology that seek to understand a companys customers . (Chen et al 2003) SAP happens to be one of the leading vendors for enterprise resource planning system, ERP. ERP systems are software package that permit companies to have more actual control over their operation. A typical CRM application will encompass the entire element in the diagram in figure 1 below Sale Market and fulfillment -Cross sell -Up-sell Customer Service and support Contact and Account Management Fax e-mail Telephone web Prospect or customer sales (OBrien, 2005) The diagram in figure 1 above show clearly that indeed ,the customer is the focus and all other aspect revolved around it ,aimed at marking the customer happy and by extension the business gaining repeat visit through customer loyalty . Now, in this SAP major strength in this application, includes the extensive capability of the softwares functional these and many other reason may have formed that reason why a large organisation like BQ picked sap to provide application . 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.1 NEED FOR CRM As the power of the seller shifts to the buyer (Watson, 2002) organizations are realizing that competing with cheaper, better or different products is not sufficient, and competitive advantage cannot be achieved by purely differentiating products alone, but through enhanced customer relationships .At the same time, customers are experiencing low switching costs and could easily redirect their loyalty from one company to another (Holcom, 2001). Their expectations have also risen in recent years, making Customer relationship management a necessity in todays customer-driven business environment (S.L. Pan, J.N. Lee, 2003). Previous research has shown that it costs more to attract new customers than retain customers because of advertising and marketing costs .This means that, instead of differentiating products, organizations should differentiate customers (M. Nykamp, 2001) and they should shift their emphasis on market share to customer share (M. Rogers, 1993). Research has also indicated that organizations must not only retain their customers but also expand the useful lifespan of customers with the organization ( Zeithaml, 2002 ) by means of IT. Through such technologies, one-to-one relationships (D. Peppers and M. Roger, 1993).Value creation (Barnes, 2001) customer value analysis, product and website customization are possible on a scale that was not possible in the past (M. Nykamp, 2001). According to the 80/20 rule, 20% of customers provide organizations with 80% of sales (Ryals and Knox, 2001). This further emphasizes the need for organizations to retain and engage in long-term relationships with profitable customers to maximize profits (J. Galbreath, 1998). SAP IN BQ. SAPCO is an acronym in BQ that stands from SAP Custer ordering system .it is a system being used by BQ to process customers orders, monitor customer transaction and enhance better customer relationship. BQ China, part of Kingfisher Group plc, is one of the top three global decorations and building materials groups. The group employs the equivalent of more than 10,000 full-time staff, serving a marketplace worth around $40 billion. Just like all customer relationship system, SAPCO enable BQ to answer question around: what product or service are customer? How should we communicate with our customers? What are my customers favourite colours or what is my customers size? (Popovvich, 2003). With SAPCO these question would be answered within minutes from customers transaction histories and processes. Businesses and individuals working on refurbishment projects are prime sales opportunities for the Decoration Centers service at BQ China. However, the workflow designed to track these opportunities relied on paper-based notes of project requirements, status, sales and value, and staff kept diaries to make follow-up calls. Total contract sales data was collected and collated manually, a process that took months, before central departments could analyze the results of marketing campaigns (http://www-01.ibm.com). Before BQ introduced SAPCO, orders where made via paper and ink .And when I interviewed BQ staff they confirmed that it was and herculean task. Mistake and long queues were that order of the day the employees found it very difficult with the stress associated with manual way of taking order from customers. The introduction of SAPCO has made all this problem history, customer can now go any of B Q store through to the UK and have their orders complete within a few minutes. 3.1 THE SAPCO PROCESS A potential customer who wants to buy goods from any BQ stores across the UK come in to the shop and meet with a customer adviser who will help the customer to look for what hi want and help the customer to process the order in the system .before the can be done the customer must have a user name and password unique to the individual alone this what the employer will us in logging into the SAPCO application .in the case of the first time customer the customer adviser with request the customer to provide some personal details like name in full, house address, postcode, phone number these information will be keyed into the system after that ,the item number or the barcode number is keyed into the system and an order places . SAPCO will run through the system and identify where the item is, if it is in stock or needs to be ordered from outside the store and if so this process begins immediately. At this point again, the customer is asked about the quantity of goods to be ordered which i s entered into the system. A quotation is also prepared by SAPCO if required by customer. Once the order has been done successfully, the order is checked by both the BQ staff and the customer to make sure the order is correct. The place of delivery of the item is then confirmed from the customer. The charges of delivery are automatically calculated by SAPCO. Then after the customer is issued a sales advice note which he takes to the checkout stand to make payment. If the item is not in store, SAPCO automatically orders the item and also states the date of delivery. This most times takes between four to six weeks (www.diy.com). It also uses the sales confirmation to control its finances effectively. This is done by clients payment for items in BQ can automatically and payments to supplies are included in the central cash flow furcating reports generated by the SAPCO financial application. Again, if the customer had done business with BQ before then and wants information about his earlier order or make a new one the staff need just ask for the postcode and customer number which would be used in locating the transaction history of the customer. Queries if any are spotted and sorted. Another angle to this system is once the order has been picked up, the BQ staff must go back to the system, click on the item across the individuals name. He then goes to the collection section and confirms after which he prints two copies of the collection note. A copy of the collection note is kept by BQ and the other unsigned is given to the customer. This affirms to both BQ and the customer that item has been picked and transaction completed. One of the key benefits of SAPCO is that it links up all the departments in BQ so a customer can walk to any sales advisor and ask about an order. The necessary information is taken off the customer at the nearest computer system available and the order is immediately displayed. 3.2 BENEFIT OF SAPCO AS A CRM TOOL It has greatly improved the ordering system in BQ. The ordering of products is done faster thereby enhancing business. It has also enabled BQ to measure its customers loyalty better through the awareness of the history of customer transaction. It also manages customers documents better as it is fully integrated in the companys business system. Prior to the use of SAPCO customer details were held on paper records, with key project milestones used as the triggers to remind customers to return to the stores. It was difficult to share information between different departments, such as keeping a record of product recommendations and noting project status, and potential opportunities are not always pursued. Angela Dong, Senior Project Manager, comments, A customer usually spends some time consulting with BQ staff, and may visit other shops to compare prices or consider alternatives. With customer information held on paper, it was all too easy to miss the follow-up sales opportunity to invi te them to select BQ. Through this system and via the internet, customers have 24 hours access to their account. This enables them easily assess their account anytime. This has also helped reduced cost for the company. The usual logistics of making orders manually has been greatly reduced. Delivery of items and tracking of goods has improved greatly improved. This system works in a way that staffs handling delivery immediately see an order has been made and paid for; hence they are aware that there is another order waiting to be delivered. With all customer and project data captured electronically, BQ is able to identify the right time to follow up with customers and maximize sales opportunities. BQ central management is able to adjust marketing campaigns in response to actual sales made, respond to demand for specific products, and monitor payments and cash flow. The result is that BQ is able to tailor its business more closely to the needs of customers, creating a genuine competitive advantage. It also a solution that that would serve customers better by providing detailed knowledge of stock levels and replenishment times, and, of course, accurate pricing, across all our stores. Customers are the most valuable assets of any company especially during this present economic situation and which SAPCO helps improves the volume of customers. According to Ian Anthony, Technical Infrastructure Programme Manager, BQ the customer ordering system in particular we have seen a huge increase in the volume of customer orders going through since the systems been implemented. The data gathered from SAPCO helps BQ to track projects status and ensure high quality which ultimately helps to improve customer satisfaction level. Due to the implementation of SAPCO information is completely transparent and managers are able to adjust sales and marketing strategies depending on actual data from current purchasing trends rather than having to wait for data to be complied by hand at the store level and later sent to the head office which normally take up to three months. (http://www-01.ibm.com). There is also an immediate visibility of the number of orders or contract which in other words means that SAPCO has improved both management and customer efficiency. 3.3 CHALLENGES OF SAPCO IN BQ The challenges of SAPCO differ from staff to staff. While some staffs believe is to be a total disaster others feel that there are ups and downs associated with its effective use. Some of which are listed below: The speed of the internet which mainly depends on the network providing the connection as been identified as one of the major challenges. There are some times a completion of order could prove a difficult task as it could take up to ten minutes to move from one page to another. This customer is made in this instance to wait for an undue period of time. For the system to work efficiently a stable and secure internet network must be available. Another big issue is the human side associated with it. Most have not come to properly appreciate the system so sometimes information is incorrectly entered. This is properly due to lack of enough training on the system or the staffs personal decision not to imbibe proper procedure. Data Collection And Processing Management Perspective Business management most times is centred on decision making. However, this aspect within most organisations is the central role of managers. Managers are faced daily with the challenges of coming up with processes that would enhance the effective running of the business. The use of information systems like the CRM technology has formed a critical role of this responsibility and to a large extend has improved this role. Most of the decisions managers have to make now have become web based either through the internet or networking applications which foster the information processing. According to Loudon, managers can now automate certain decision procedure (for example , determining the highest price that can be charged for a product to maintain market share or the highest amount of materials to maintain in inventory to maximise efficient customer response and product profitability). Loudon Loudon 2002 pg. 404). Organisations have a hierarchy of decision makers. This hierarchy in many ways enhances the smooth running of companies. Within the organisation there are the following: Strategic Management The manager here are concerned with decision around the long time value of the company and most times described as unstructured (George Steiner). Tactical Management- Managers here are concerned with medium term planning. They monitor the performance of the organisation, control budget, allocate resources and set budget (Bocij 2003 pg.18). Operational Management- Manager here directly handles the running of the business. Decisions here are highly structured as they affect the business directly and are felt at the moment it is taken. Managers here implements budget and apply them to business. For instance the decision by BQ to adopt SAPCO as a customer relationship management tool for such a large organisation would have been exclusively strategic. However, setting out the budget and planning ahead for the system would have been tactical and implementation would have been by the operation managers. Most CRM application has failed due to poor business management. However, BQs SAPCO has been in use for more than seven years and it is still recording success on a daily basis. Managers can now ascertain the items that are in great need and hence proactively stock them. SAPCO greatly supports operational and tactical decisions in BQ. This SAP enabled system also provides report, giving managers a comprehensive view of the firms performance. It also features corporate performance metrics, simulations and planning tools. (Loudon Loudon 2002 pg 423). Through this system, management can easily view their performance level and also the areas that need to be improved upon. As an enterprise resource planning system, SAPCO brings all the units together into one entity and thereby having a better control of operation. This ultimately provides a better link with their supplier and distributors hence the main goal of servicing the customer is achieved. The integration of business systems has enabled management reach beyond their own corporate walls to better connect with suppliers, distributors and end customers. (Gupta 2000). Sales are better managed especially with the use of the internet although this could also be a shortcoming since it means the system is dependent on the internet connection which it has no power over. However, the internet greatly supports the application. Managers at different levels can track sales at different locations and this gives them a better understanding of the business irrespective of how large the organisation maybe. The rewards of an effective CRM technology like SAPCO are indeed enormous. Steve Gilman, BQI director and BQ UK board director BQI has described the benefits of adopting SAP Retail as better customer availability and cost reductions. Gilman says, We can record sales and margin accurately and as a result have boosted our margins. We have given ourselves a lead over our competitors.(www.ciber.com.au/). Business chief executives can now stay ahead of the competition with greater focus on the customer than the competitors. On the management side cost are reduces and more revenue is made from increased sales. Ethical Challenges In Customer Relationship Management When a new technology is introduced into a business, it comes with its challenges. Its use even creates more challenges which in many ways affect its users. Ethics is one area of great concern to effective business management and information technology most effectively. Ethics refers to the principles of right and wrong that individual, acting as free moral agents, can use to make choice to guide their behaviour. (Laudon Laudon 2002 pg 468) Business ethics is crucial especially to management. It is something managers confront with everyday and have to deal with as the situation presents itself. OBrien speaks of a situation in which he states that as a business professional, you have a responsibility to promote ethical uses of information technology in the workplace. (2005 pg.380). In todays business world, issues of ethics range around privacy, intellectual property, security and even safety issues. Managers must make sure that its stakeholders interests are well protected when issues of this sort arise. 5.1 Information Systems And Ethics 5.1.1 Privacy- The issues of privacy have become one of growing concern as regards information systems in todays business environment. Alter identifies two crucial areas in this: personal privacy, which talks about the ability of an individual to avoid unwanted instructions into personal time. Space and property (2002, pg.287), and the information privacy which deals with the the ability of the individual to determined when, how and to what extent personal information is communicated to others (2007, pg 287). Privacy issues generally can be spotted in a lot of areas, today organisations, through use of the intranet within offices, can monitors mails that staff send across the organisation and also find out the sites they are visiting. This in a lot of ways infringes on their rights of privacy as individuals. That is why most individuals how prefer to send all private mails from their homes. However, the CRM technology is one area that this becomes very crucial. Companies in the process of conduction business with customers, gather a lot of personal information of its customers, for instance BQ, with its SAPCO system. Most of customers personal details are taken by the system. It now dwells on managers and staffs alike to make sure that this information of customers are well protected from abuse. However, over the years there had been codes like the code of fair information practices (Alter 2002, pg.290) created in the US to ensure that customers are to large extent in control of information released from being used for other things without their consent. 5.1.2 Health Issues- This is a very critical issue especially as information technology in the work place raises a variety of health issues. Heavy use of computer is reportedly causing health problems like job stress, damaged arm and neck muscles, eye strain radiation exposure and even death by computerised caused death. O Brien 2005, pg 395). There are times when placing an order for customers on the system can take ages and these in cases are linked to a slow system of internet and how voluminous the order is. In tackling this issue, what BQ has done is making sure that staffs have at least two breaks within a particular working day to ease of the stress that could be associated with this. A day off in the week is also given to staff. In this way, they probably foreseen the issues greatly minimised. 5.1.3 Property Issue- In information technology, this is often referred to as intellectual property which literally links to ownership of an idea or a product. This is very important in business. However, the internet raises some new challenges (Rowley 2002, pg. 244). Issues to be considered in terms of this include trade secrets, copyright and patents. a. Trade secrets- These are very crucial corporate issues as most times. They are associated with companys brand image and identity. They are often regarded as assets that if infringed upon can be sued in the court of law. In 2007, Oracle sued and accused SAP of hacking into its computer networks and stealing vital product information (BBC News 2007). Prevention this now, companies who own products must find ways of making sure that employees protect these from competitors and public generally. b. Copyright- These refer to a law or statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property from having their works copied by others for any purpose for a period of 28 years. Laudon Laudon 2002, pg. 479). Despite the fact that companies like Oracle, Siebel, Sap, Salesforce all developed CRM. However, there are particular areas which are unique to this companies that cannot be taken from them. Also companies that use SAP products like BQ (SAPCO) and Virgin cosmetics (MYSAP) all have customised products which are peculiar to their companies which must be protected. 6.0 Security Management In Information System It is not enough to create systems within organisation, management must put certain measures in place to ensure that these information are well secured.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Femininity And The Female Body Cultural Studies Essay The stereotypical gender roles given by the society are female being feminine and male being masculine. The social expectations of male masculinity and female femininity are described by Mc Cubbin and Blum Dahl, former professors at the University of Minnesota, as Men should be brave, strong, ambitious and aggressive, while keeping their feelings under control; Women should be gentle, nurturant, passive, dependent, and expressive of their feelings (Mc Cubbin and Blum Dhal, 2005, 189). The term femininity involves a social process in which a female sex is recognized with certain traits and characteristics. These traits are marked by the society the moment she is born hence, creating a sexual difference of being a woman. The construction of gender identity by our surroundings if further described by Bornstein as, Then theres gender attribution, whereby we look at somebody and say, thats a man, or thats a woman. And this is important because the way we perceive anothers gender affects the way we relate to that person. (1995, p. 26). A woman meant to be feminine and the degree of femininity she possesses is evaluated by the way she dresses up, the way she speaks, the way she walks, her body language and most importantly her beauty. Paintings, fashion photographs, news photographs, pornographic images, magazines differ in the way they are utilized but, they all interconnect in the representation of femininity and the female sexuality. The photograph by a renowned photographer Horst P. Horst (See Appendix, Figure 1) will be analysed to discuss the feminist issue of measuring a females value through her appearance and the feminism, the feminist theories against it and also representing women as surreal objects. Horst P. Horst was a German American photographer who is famous for his fashion and women photography. The Mainbocher corset is regarded as one of his iconic photographs created for Vogue in1939 (Koetzel, 2003). The image consists of a woman sitting on a bench seen from behind. She is wearing a back lacing corset and looking down through her right arm. The whole image encompasses a feel of a power less woman. However, when seen in different angle, it can give a different meaning altogether. The corset, a piece of underwear, which has a long history connected to it had long been part of a female body. A female wore tight-laced corset in order to define her waist more blatantly. Fontanel depicted the transformation of a female body as a great silky insect with outspread wings (1997, p. 49). In addition to making the waist line more evident, corsets cause breasts to heave and make buttocks stand out creating a slender and seductive silhouette. Therefore, a female wears a gracious instrument of torture so as to transform into a desired shape. Moreover, in the nineteenth century the tightly laced corsets were outrageous and lunatic and caused hindrance in the movement. Dubios in his book An Examination of five plagues regarded corset as one of the plagues as it causes terrible physical damage; deformation, breast sagging etc, when worn for longer duration (Fontanel, 1997). Likewise, it lends a female her femininity but, not a healthy one. Feminists argue that the act of theorizing the body is especially pertinent to women (Carson, 2001, p. 117). Moreover, the bodies of women are controlled by men and are idealized for male consumption. Beauvoir (1997) describes woman as the Other and writes, No biological, psychological or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society; it is civilization as a whole that produces this creature (p. 295). In other words, the culture has created an idealized female body image and is represented in Horsts image. On the contrary, the unravelled corset is recuperating the depiction of the female body from stereotyping. It is portraying womens; freedom from corset, freedom of movement and freedom from conventional gender role. The image also surfaces the notion of surrealism. The word surreal is defined as characterized by fantastic imagery and incongruous juxtapositions. Surrealism was an artistic movement founded at the beginning of the 18th century. Andre Breton, the founder of the movement wrote a Surrealist Manifesto and described surrealism as, based in the belief in the superior reality of certain previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dreams, in the disinterested play of thought (Mikics, 2007, p. 292) . In other words, surrealism eradicates the borderline between real and unreal and conscious and unconscious. It is a new way of seeing the world. Hence, moving out of the ordinary and getting into the imaginary world. Surrealism: decontextualizing an everyday object and transposing it to an unusual or socially unacceptable place in order to highlight its status as sign. Women have always been the primary subjects of criticism and display and so they are in surrealism. Horsts image focus on one of the most persistent notion of surrealism that is fetishization. The corset is a fetish object creating erotic and provocative image, thus, arousing sexual desire for the object being displayed. According to Freud, it is as though the last impression before the uncanny and traumatic one is retained as a fetish pieces of underclothing which are so often chosen as a fetish, crystallize a moment of undressing, the last moment in which women could still be regarded as phallic (As cited in Wood, 2007, p.32). In other words, the corset accentuates female body parts and shapes her body into an hour glass figure. The less natural her appearance, the more seductive she  looks (Fontanel, p. 52). This brings up the idea of transforming womens bodies for mens pleasure. In addition, the image also seizes the moment where women is submissive and have no control over m ens desires. Feminists are against the objectification of the female body and representing it as fetishised object as seen in the image. A more modern concept however, is that the corset allows a woman to express her sexual freedom. Women feel more sexy in a corset. It is no longer considered part of a Victorian era dress code, but simply as sexual leisure-wear. the female control over male desires, and the males control over the female body. Conclusion:othing is so lively, so lovely, as deathly pallor: Embracing the body, the corset frames a story to stir the emotions and set the imagination free.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Worldwide Disaster: Right at Your Fingertips Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Internet junkies and world leaders alike are dealing with a phenomenon they do not fully understand; the internet, a vast, ungovernable, intimate, alter-reality, through which, almost anything is possible. Although many acclaim the internet as a harbinger to a new age and extol its virtues as an information source, the internet brings challenges few are ready to face. The versatility of the internet brings these troubles into many realms of our everyday life. This paper will discuss how the internet hurts commerce, international relations, and interpersonal relationships. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The commercial industries have latched onto the internet as if it were free money. Many, though have been caught unaware. Commerce suffers greatly from information leaks and infringement. One of the largest losses come from the loss of trade secrets. Joseph Kizza, an expert researcher in the field of internet influence, states the problem succinctly: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Two types of information can leak on the internet: (1) information on devices, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã designs, processes, software designs, and many other industrial processes, and (2) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã information on individual employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ life possessions-- employee- accumulated Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã knowledge and experience...When an employee is hired by a company he/she Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã usually signs a contract with a new employer against disclosure of information Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"acquired in the course of employment.Ã¢â¬ But by the nature of the internet an Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã employee can live by this contract and yet disclose as much information, most Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã times unknowingly, into the internet community. (147) Such information leaks can do great damage to individual companies in a competitive environment. Years of research and millions of dollars can be leaked out unwittingly. Infringement uses these trade secrets for gain. An infringer is anyone who uses proprietary information to profit undeservedly. But, unlike other lawbreakers no public law enforcement can be used to investigate an infringer (Kizza 78). The owner of patents or copyrights must pay any expenses incurred for investigating and prosecuting. Considering the inability to trace internet access in such a case few infringements are ever caught. This can be devastating to commerce (Kizza 78). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Concerning international relations the internet has already done much damage. The British Broadcasting Company, ran a program in 1995 explaining how before any real bombing began in the Gulf War, the US government used internet warfare to drop the Ã¢â¬Å"I- BombÃ¢â¬ on Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s information systems (Bourdieu 57). The program intimated that the damage done in such warfare is more devastating than the physical damage done by the bombing. Internet Pro Or Con :: essays research papers Worldwide Disaster: Right at Your Fingertips Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Internet junkies and world leaders alike are dealing with a phenomenon they do not fully understand; the internet, a vast, ungovernable, intimate, alter-reality, through which, almost anything is possible. Although many acclaim the internet as a harbinger to a new age and extol its virtues as an information source, the internet brings challenges few are ready to face. The versatility of the internet brings these troubles into many realms of our everyday life. This paper will discuss how the internet hurts commerce, international relations, and interpersonal relationships. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The commercial industries have latched onto the internet as if it were free money. Many, though have been caught unaware. Commerce suffers greatly from information leaks and infringement. One of the largest losses come from the loss of trade secrets. Joseph Kizza, an expert researcher in the field of internet influence, states the problem succinctly: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Two types of information can leak on the internet: (1) information on devices, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã designs, processes, software designs, and many other industrial processes, and (2) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã information on individual employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ life possessions-- employee- accumulated Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã knowledge and experience...When an employee is hired by a company he/she Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã usually signs a contract with a new employer against disclosure of information Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"acquired in the course of employment.Ã¢â¬ But by the nature of the internet an Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã employee can live by this contract and yet disclose as much information, most Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã times unknowingly, into the internet community. (147) Such information leaks can do great damage to individual companies in a competitive environment. Years of research and millions of dollars can be leaked out unwittingly. Infringement uses these trade secrets for gain. An infringer is anyone who uses proprietary information to profit undeservedly. But, unlike other lawbreakers no public law enforcement can be used to investigate an infringer (Kizza 78). The owner of patents or copyrights must pay any expenses incurred for investigating and prosecuting. Considering the inability to trace internet access in such a case few infringements are ever caught. This can be devastating to commerce (Kizza 78). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Concerning international relations the internet has already done much damage. The British Broadcasting Company, ran a program in 1995 explaining how before any real bombing began in the Gulf War, the US government used internet warfare to drop the Ã¢â¬Å"I- BombÃ¢â¬ on Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s information systems (Bourdieu 57). The program intimated that the damage done in such warfare is more devastating than the physical damage done by the bombing.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The French Lieutenant's Woman as Victorian Realistic Novel Ã Ã Ã Although The French Lieutenant's Woman was written and cinematized in the 20th century and is based on a modern film production of a piece of 19th century fiction, the stories and plots themselves have contextual elements of a Victorian Realistic Novel. Despite the inability to accurately and directly compare it with that of true Victorian literature, many of the same elements can be found and parallel one another. Some of the elements of present day contemporary novels still bear a resemblance to their Victorian predecessors. Ã The French Lieutenant's Woman can be considered a Realistic novel because its subjects are of people living in society and their relationships; more specifically, love, courtship, money, marriage, infidelity, and social problems of the time (Agatucci, 2001). This can be contrasted to heroic, fantastic idealized or sensationalized plots of a Romance (Agatucci, 2001). In this case, realistic category fits for both past and present versions of the plot . In addition, the plot itself runs a course determined by cause and effect logic and determinism, as opposed being influenced by the divine or supernatural and be predetermined (Agatucci, 2001). The characters and conflicts can be hazy as to who is the "hero" and "villain", their qualities are a mix of both good and bad, strong and weak, and they are not idealized like that of a classical hero (Agatucci, 2001). For example, we wish for the main characters in The French Lieutenant's Woman to find love and happiness with each other, but th eir affairs are elicit and they are betraying others. Yet the characters do not possess the extreme elements of the Byronic hero, which is mostly a ... ...irs happening at the same time (Agatucci, 2001). The lack of continuity allows for reflection and comparison not only of life then and now, how we allow ourselves to be wisked off into a world of invention and illusion. Ã When we are willing participants, the other dramatic devices such as setting, character and plot development, and a realistic theme will then have a stronger influence on our imagination. Despite of our awareness that the stories are fiction, our need to be entertained suspends our disbelief; this one of the few characteristics we have very much in common with those living in the Victorian era. Ã Works Cited Longman, (2000). The Longman Anthology of British Literature, vol. B. Damrosch, D. (ed.). NY, LA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.Ã Ã Agatucci, C. (2001). ENG 103, Survey of British Literature. Central Oregon Community College.
Emperor Hadrian in Marguerite Yourcenar's Memoirs of Hadrian and E.L. Doctorow's Everyman figure of Coalhouse Walker, Jr. in Ragtime As Marguerite Yourcenar states in Memoirs of Hadrian, Ã¢â¬Å". . . there is always a day where Atlas ceases to support the weight of the heavens, and his revolt shakes the earth.Ã¢â¬ (114) When Coalhouse Walker strides knowingly, even willingly, into his death, he is more powerful at that moment than he has been at any other point in his crusade. Because he has no regard for death or for the effect of his decision upon the rest of the world, his chosen fate sends a resounding reaction through all who witness his end. And what might drive a man to abandon his life so freely? Love and death. Inextricably meshed in both Memoirs of Hadrian by Marguerite Yourcenar and E.L. DoctorowÃ¢â¬â¢s Ragtime, these timeless states profoundly change the outlooks of Emperor Hadrian and Coalhouse Walker Jr. Despite being separated by centuries, both men go to extreme lengths for their perception of love, but when death intervenes they have curiously opposite reactions. Hadrian is Emperor of the vast Roman Empire, and when he first comes into power he is afire with new ideas of beautification and improvements for all the provinces of the Empire, whether the people of said provinces wanted to be improved or not. He is secure enough in himself to consider himself, while not a god, something like a lieutenant, Ã¢â¬Å"seconding the deity in his effort to give form and order to a world, to develop and multiply its convolutions, extensions, and complexities.Ã¢â¬ (Yourcenar, 144) After many personal triumphs, he still refuses the accolades that previous EmperorÃ¢â¬â¢s have felt were rightfully theirs, preferring to let his people and his ... ...ife. This concept is totally foreign to Coalhouse Walker Jr. who, only after achieving the love that he sought and then losing it so quickly and so inhumanely, gains almost godlike power over the people of the city, inspiring fear and no little awe for the man who would go to such lengths over an automobile and some inconsequential (to them) black woman who wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even his wife. Death and love: inseparable through the course of time, transcending the agesÃ¢â¬â both Emperor Hadrian and Coalhouse Walker Jr. face them, and while one gains conviction and a purpose, even if that purpose is ultimately his own death, the other declines, never seeing that the death of his love could possibly serve a purpose other than simple grief and mourning, never understanding that, with time and action, Ã¢â¬Å"the future [could] once more [hold] the hope of the past.Ã¢â¬ (Yourcenar, 176)
Saturday, August 17, 2019
During a Muscle Contraction The muscle fiber is in a resting state. The resting state is slightly negative inside and slightly positive outside. It has to be in this state in order to receive a message. First the brain sends a message to the muscle using a neuron then reaches the axon terminal of the neuron. Calcium gates then open on the axon terminal allowing calcium to rush in. Ach release from axon terminals, diffuses across the synaptic clef and binds to (receptors) on motor end plate.Then Ach receptor channel opens and increases permeability of Na+ into karyoplasms. This allows sodium gates to open. Na+ enters muscle fiber, rapid depolarization of sarcolemma occurs. Voltage changes to a less negative charge. An increase of Na+ rushing into cell allows for more gates to open (depolarization wave). Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that resets and closes gates once Ach is removed from its receptor. Once sodium gates close it initiates K+ gates to open.K+ rushes out of the cell th is and once repolarized the gates closes by the use of a pump and return to a resting state. ATP powers the Ca++ active transport pumps. The action potential spreads away from the end plate in all directions and depolarizes the T-tubules and dips down into the SR and depolarizes it. Calcium gates on the SR return open and allows calcium to rush out into the sarcoplasm. Calcium gates close, when a gate opens itÃ¢â¬â¢s a one way movement.Ca++ combines with protien troponin and changes shape exposing the myosin binding sites on actin. This is the latent period, the lag time between stimulation and contraction. Myosin heads or cross bridges attach to actin binding sites on thin filaments. The sliding filament theory of a muscle contraction begins. When myosin binds to actin it pulls toward the m-line this is the Ã¢â¬Å"power strokeÃ¢â¬ . Once myosin head if flexed, ATP binding site is exposed and ATP binds to the head. Every single myosin head that attaches to actin has to have ATP. Now the myosin head detaches from actin binding sites in result of ATP binding. Energy from ATP returns the myosin head to cocked forward position and now attaches to a new binding site on actin. Ca++ is then removed from troponin and changes shape allowing tropomyosin to cover myosin binding sites on actin. ATP is required to assist with the active transport of Ca++ to the SR. This process is considered the contraction and is repeated over and over as long as ATP and Ca++ are available.
Friday, August 16, 2019
The elimination of market interventions and more liberalization has a positive effect on FDI inflows. According to Zhang &Yang (2016) the importance of WTO with regard to FDI has been overlooked by the previous researchers and until now its effect on FDI and that On Trade related investment measures (TRIMS) has not been examined. Sane (2015) study suggests that it is important for national governments and for those firms that are involved in formulating investment, business and trade policies to know the effect of TRIMS on the foreign investment. It is the responsibility of WTO member to remove tariffs and other barriers that can affect the foreign as well as local investors. In order to attract more FDI in various sectors, locations and activities the overseas investors are offered with incentives. These incentives can in the form of tax credits, concessions, holidays, export subsidies, export subsidies and accelerated depreciation on machinery and plants. (Shah & Khan, 2016). Milner (2014) states that the most common feature that have been affecting the maneuvers of multinational firms in the host country are the rewards and punishment approach. Furthermore, the main purpose of Trade related investment measures is to abolish such kind of approach. In case of any dispute between two-member countries the WTO has dispute settlement mechanism from one state to other. (Shah, 2010). The decisions related to settlement of dispute does not require harmony among the members. (Shah, 2011a).According to Barry et al. (2016) previous studies indicate that multinational overseas investment is affected by high tariff barriers.Shah(2017a) found that rapid reduction of tariff duties in the late eighties that in early nineties and eventually due to the agreement of WTO in1995 led to tariff jumping FDI. This kind of investment is not present in free market economies. (Medvedev, 2012) With The internationalization of multinational productions competition for FDI has become more business friendly economic atmosphere which is in accordance with the objectives of W TO. (Paul, 2015). By observing the Present & the likely future factors that can affect the FDI movements this will help to create a market that is free of any interventions which would in turn attract more investment (Sutyrin, Efinova & Trofimenko, 2016). This study aims to determine the effect of TRIMs on overseas investment in 38 Sub-Saharan African countries from years1988 to 2015 i.e. 28 years .The variables used are market size, economic development, infrastructure, macro-economic stability. The results indicate that TRIMS have positive impact on FDI inflows. The conventional determinants of FDI consists of Market size, Trade openness, Economic Development, Macroeconomic stability and Infrastructure ability and Quality. These are considered as the main factors that have major influence on inward FDI.Balasubramanyam ( 1991) defined TRIMS as both collection of incentives & restrictive measures that are designed by a developing country in order to influence of FDI.To control the use of performance requirements that are imposed on foreign investors by means of WTO TRIMS. (Collins,2016). These agreements are a combination of both new and existing investments and includes both native & foreign firms. (Shah,2011b).The member states of WTO are required to notify about the procedures that do not comply with the TRIM agreement in 3 months' time period. To eliminate all kind of distortions the members of developed countries are granted two years' time, the developing countries five years and the low developed countries up to seven years. The developing countries that are unable to implement TRIM within the given time frame can get more time by applying for extension within seven years for Pakistan and few months for Chile. (UNCTAD, 2012).The amount of trade agreements that are signed by a developing country are taken as proxy for TRIMS. Moreover, these agreements involve two or few partner economies they focus more to tariff and service liberalization. TRIMS is very crucial for FDI due to removal of non-tariff barriers in trade. It allows overseas investors to freely export, import goods and generate profits. It gives all the investors equal treatment irrespective of their nationality. Impartial investment policies are more favorable for enticing foreign investors and tend to have a positive relationship between TRIMS & FDI inflows. (Shah, 2012a).ESTIMATION METHODShah(2017) used equation one for determining the effect of TRIMs implementation under WTO on inward FDI in 38 Sub-Saharan African countries.FDI it=f(Market size, economic development, openness, Macroeconomic stability, Infrastructure, TRIMS) Ã¢â¬ ¦..Equation 1Ã¢â¬ ³In equation one subscript i represents a Sub-Saharan African country from 1 to 38. Subscript t denotes the time period from 1988 to 2015 varying from 1 to 28which is equal to a total of 1064 (28*38) observations per variable. FDIit is used for the dependent variable representing the yearly stock of FDI in each of the host economy i.Ã¢â¬ Equation two is derived from equation 1 by using log and by putting the proxies for dependent and independent variables. Where, ln is used for natural log, which also reduces the likely heteroscedasticity (Resmini, 2000). For market size Gross domestic product is used. The gross fixed capital formation proxy is used for development level, aggregate trade represents the extent of openness of the economy, exchange rate is used for macroeconomic stability and for infrastructure availability telephone density is used. The WTO membership and the trade agreements proxy represents TRIMs implementation.Empirical Estimation MethodShah, (2012b) used longitudinal panel for data from 38 countries for 28 years. Hausman (1978) specification test was carried out to select between fixed and random effect and the use of fixed effect model was found more appropriate. (Nonnenberg & Mendonca, 2004).RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe market size variable (GDP) is positive and was found to have significant effect on FDI. Shah (2016) found the results to be in accordance with the theory since economies of scale, opportunities for diversification and more possibilities of making an optimal use of the imported technology are usually offered by bigger markets. Economic development (GFCF) is positive but insignificant.Trade openness was positively significant which indicate that multinationals prefer open economies. Macroeconomic stability is found by the exchange rate. The result reveals that FDI in the Sub Saharan Africa is based more on exports due to depreciation of currency. Infrastructure and quality are positively significant as these are considered more important for the production and trade related activities. The proxy for TRIMS is the no of trade agreements and that of WTO membership is positive and significant which indicates that the amount of trade agreements signed by the host results in increase in inward FDI.CONCLUSIONThe main aim of this research is to determine the effect of TRIMs implementation on FDI inflows in Sub-Saharan African Developing countries. The technique used for data analysis was fixed estimation for the years 1988 to 2015 which shows that presence of larger domestic market attracts multinationals (Shah & Afridi, 2015). Trade liberalization enables the multinationals to sell their products in other countries.The important factors affecting FDI are Infrastructure, trade liberalisation and exchange rate. These factors tend to influence the overseas investors' investment decision because they empower the multinationals. Reduction in TRIMs related market distortions positively affects multinationals due to the resultant liberalisation of the trade and investment environment adding to a country's prospects of hosting additional FDI. Economy development was found to be insignificant due to the relative backwardness of the economies under investigation. These results are applicable to the 38 Sub-Saharan African countries only and shall not be widespread universally to other countries.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Institute FOR CAT PREPARATIONThe great author, Alexandre Dumas, one time said Ã¢â¬Å" nil succeeds like success Ã¢â¬ . It is, but a victor, who takes all the awards, and non the losers. To win is an unconditioned leaning of adult male in any competition. In today Ã¢â¬Ës universe, instruction is the chief race. Every individual demands the best. Hence, the ferocious competition. If the competition be, to merely come in a good school, one can conceive of how strict the Ã¢â¬Ërat race Ã¢â¬Ë will be. After school, ( 10+2 or intermediate ) , one attempts to acquire into the best college and make the best alumnus degree class. But, the occupation market, being what it is today, a Post-graduation becomes necessary. In India these yearss there is no famine of classs and colleges. But how many are reputed, supply good instruction, have all installations etc. ? A really of import calling these yearss is Business direction. To acquire into a good B-School itself is a dashing undertaking. With merely a few thousand seats in all B-Schools combined, it is a large challenge for the lacs of campaigners. So, we have entrance tests. The Ã¢â¬ËCAT Ã¢â¬Ë ( Common Admission Test ) , conducted by the Ã¢â¬ËIIMs Ã¢â¬Ë ( Indian Institute of Management ) , is one of the toughest entryway trials. Conducted by the IIMs, this alone trial, checks one for one Ã¢â¬Ës IQ, general English and general math and other soft accomplishments. This trial has a specialized marker system, besides carries negative points. There are about 75 B-Schools besides the six IIMs which accept CAT tonss. Since CAT needs particular readying, there are training institutes for CAT itself. How to Choose an Institute: CAT coaching is done fundamentally at three degrees ; schoolroom, correspondence & A ; online. The latter two may be followed up with a personal contact plan clang class. Following guidelines will be utile: * Make certain the institute is of reputation. It has all the basic installations to take up CAT coaching. Some institutes offer free demo categories. That may be good, but do n't trust on them as a free demo is any manner traveling to be good. * Do non travel by their word on how many pupils they have placed, low fees or strength of ex-IIM module. * The institute may run training for non-IIMs as good, but what is your demand? Most institutes offer, at a small excess cost, developing for both. In such a instance a GK subdivision is included which may assist in GD/PI subsequently. Act consequently * Mark your pick between correspondence, schoolroom & A ; on-line classs. Online classs are suggested the least as synergistic and at-length classs are better. * If your metropolis does non hold a schoolroom coaching, travel for a correspondence class and take mock cats along with synergistic clang class. ( it may non be a bad pick to travel to a nearby large metropolis for that. ) * Last but non the least, does the institute provide GD/PI ( Group Discussion/ Personal Interview ) session subsequently on. they are every bit of import as the written trial. * If you require a survey loan, travel straight to a bank, non through the institute. Such is the demand for CAT readying that Pre-CAT institutes have sprung up like Mushrooms all over. Some of the outstanding 1s are: O IMS Learning Resources Pvt. Ltd: possibly the oldest in game, it is headquartered in Mumbai. It has a presence in over 50 metropoliss. Outstanding 1s are Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhubneshwar, Baroda, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Jammu, Jaipur, Kolkata, kanpur, Lucknow, Mumbai, Madurai, Nagpur etc. the institute gives its USP as the most no. of arrangements. o Career Launcher: A Delhi based institute, it is one of the younger institutes. Has many subdivisions in Delhi. Has subdivisions in Mumbai, Pune, NOIDA, Lucknow, Kanpur, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Kolkata, Burdwan, Durgapur, Bangalore, Hubli, Ahmedabad etc. every bit good. o Ascent Education: It is a Chennai based institute.it besides provides classs in correspondence & A ; on-line classs in multiple locations. o T.I.M.E. ( Triumphant institute of direction instruction ) : Headquartered in Hyderabad, it imparts schoolroom coaching in most major towns of India. Harmonizing to the T.I.M.E. , it imparts low-cost class. It has been a recent success. Has been founded by IIM & A ; XLRI alumna. o Career Forum: This institute provides training in Pune and 6 other metropoliss. It besides provides correspondence classs. O Brilliant Tutorials: A veteran of IIT JEE, this Chennai based institute besides provides reputed classs in CAT every bit good. Possibly the most advertised one, it claims a high success rate. o Other outstanding institutes are PT ( professional tutorials ) , The Princeton Review, Magnum, Bulls oculus, Prudence academy, Indo-Scottish Study Circle, Mastervision Nucleus ( Bangalore ) etc. One can besides acquire information from the Net ( Google, Yahoo ) , by word-of-mouth from their equals, Educational addendums of major national dailies. Now-a-days it is possible that MBA entryway preparation institutes outnumber the B-Schools themselves! Remember what person said, Ã¢â¬ If you fail to fix, fix to neglect Ã¢â¬ . There is no ground to believe that if you go to a little CAT-prep school, live in a little town or you are Differently-abled u ca n't check CAT. Hard-work, regularity & A ; pattern are the key to Ã¢â¬ËBelling the CAT Ã¢â¬Ë !
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Sun Assignment 2. Strategic Management . School of Strategy. According to Synder and Neil H. (1982) in their journal called Ã¢â¬ËStrategic Management JournalÃ¢â¬â¢ , The school of strategy definition of strategic planning that are offered by Henry Mintzberg in 1981 concludes that strategic planning is a process involving all components of planning that integrated decision making, structured procedure with articulate results, and specific tactical objectives that should be seen as a whole process. In the school of strategy, there are 10 school of thought, it is divided into two parts which are prescriptive and descriptive.The details of the strategy are shown below. Prescriptive schools : consist of 3 schools which are Design, Planning and Positioning. Descriptive schools : consist of 7 schools which are Entrepreneurial, Cognitive, Learning, Power, Cultural, Environmental and Configuration. Also, Written in article called Ã¢â¬Å" An Overview of Strategy Development Models and the Ward-RIvani ModelÃ¢â¬â¢ by Dr. David Ward (2005). In year 1977 another guy came along which a set of strategy alongside Mitzberg that called Whittington.He claimed that there are four criteria that will determine a strategy success which are Deterministic or Emergent, Single Goal or Pluralistic, Strategy Style, and Influences. The Link between Prescriptive schools and Descriptive schools. From what i understand from both of this schools, prescriptive schools are the first step of strategy that needed to be done If we would like to do something. For example, If you want to open your own business, the first step would be the prescriptive school where you need to design what kind of business you would like to do, plan how to do your business (business plan) nd also how you position your business(where do you want your business to be). In the other hand , Descriptive schools of strategies are the strategies and skills that are needed to bring forward you prescriptive schools . Where a ll components of this strategy can effect your business. For example, any successful business need to have a leader who can lead the organization forward where what has been designed, plan , and positioned and to be a leader, strategy as entrepreneurship is essential. The Differences between Prescriptive schools and Descriptive schools.In Prescriptive schools, design and planning are the aim of a company Ã¢â¬Å" to fit organizational capability with environmental ability and to best allocate resources to achieve any chosen goals within a specific timeframeÃ¢â¬ and to make the aim a success, a proper positioning strategy needed to be done. All of theses examples often using strategies such as environmental analysis such as SWOT analysis (design), forecasting (planning), Market segment & five forces (positioning). Therefore, we would understand here that prescriptive schools are used to understand more about the market.For instance, in strategic management, prescriptive schools are often used to determine who is your target market, understanding your competitors, defining your opportunities, and also what kind of strategy that our company would like to execute properly to gain competitive advantage especially if you are doing business globally or growing your business internationally. In the other hand, Descriptive Schools are more of all the things that needed to be in order within a company or organisation to execute the strategy that has been choose.For example, even with a proper planning but without a proper team to execute it, it will be hard for any business to sustain even in the early stage while making business. Its consist of leader needed, networking we have, culture reflects , economic cycle, environmental circumtances, ethics , and also cognitive psychology. Which means that, in descriptive schools , it is all the components that a company or firm need to have in order to execute any strategy perfectly. How to Profeciently Execute any strategy w hen we already understand about the schools of strategy?In the world business nowadays, understanding the theoretical area of a strategy such as schools of strategy would not be enough to execute a perfect strategy. As had been stated by Gamble and Arthur (2009) in their book called Ã¢â¬Ë Essentials of Strategic ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢ , They have stated that there are three elements that needed to be have in order to execute any strategy. The elements are shown below : Human Capital Ã¢â¬â Intangible assets such as skills, knowledge, and values that are required by the strategy. . Information Capital Ã¢â¬â Intangible assets such as the systems, databases, and networks that support the strategy. 3. Organizational Capital Ã¢â¬â Strategy supportive intangible assets such as leadership, alignment of goals, and teamwork. WhittingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Classification of Strategic Perspective. According to Whittington(2002), in his book called Ã¢â¬Ë What is Strategy and Does it MatterÃ¢â¬â ¢ , increasing profits is the highest goal of business and rational planning needed if we want to attain it.Meanwhile, the strategic aim in business would be earning a return on capital, and if in any particular case the return in the long run is not enough, the deficiency should be corrected or the activity should be abandoned. To sum up the idea of whittington : Classical Approach of strategy. Ã¢â¬â a classical approach to any strategy requires that the manager must be ready and capable of adopting profit maximizing strategies through long term planning. Besides that there are three more example of approach that are shown below : Evolutionaty Approach of strategy. oes not rely on top management skill to plan and act rationally. Instead, it will all depend on the markets which will determine the profit maximization. Also, in evolutionary perspective, the best selected strategy will determine the performance of the company. Processual Approach to strategy. Organizations and marke ts are wrought with confusion and mess. Therefore, the best Processual method is not strive for the ideal, instead, it needed to work with the reality offers where micro-political view has implied that firms are not united towards a single goal such as profit.Besides that, it will be up on the number of individuals with different interest and bring them to the organization. The main strategy for this approach is to simplify all the complex processes. Systemic Approach on Strategy. Ã¢â¬â The theorist for this approach believe that the organization is capable of planning and acting effectively. All the social factors such as family, state, and religion influences the means and ends of a systemic approach and will define what is the suitable behavior for each of their members.In this approach, the organization are not just made up by an individuals but of social groups with interests. For instance, class and professions, nations and states, families and gender can be determine as th e systemic variables. Hence, the strategy will depends on the social environment of the firm. Based on four approach on strategy by Whittington, these four theories of action in business will offer us an insight into the motivation behind any companies vision and what are the strategies that the companies would like to implement in order to gain competitive advantage in their market.Reference List : Ward, . (2005). An Overview of Strategy Development Models and the Ward-Rivani Model . . 1 (1), pg12-16. Gamble, Arthur,. (2009). Superior Strategy Execution Ã¢â¬â Another path of competitive advantage. In: Griffin, L. Essential of Strategic Management. America, New York: McGraw-Hill. pg116-136. Synder, Neil H.. (1982). Research Notes and Communications.. Strategic Management Journa. 3 (3), p265-267. Whittington, Richard (2002). What is Strategy- and Does it Matter?. UK: Thomson Learning. pg29-57.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
WK7 Research Design - Essay Example This research extensively purposes at obtaining new knowledge of the drastic depreciation in performance of university students through significant utilization of relevant concepts. The attained results will assist in the description of the problem, development of countering alternatives and provision of knowledge and skill useful in decision-making for the university managements. Furthermore, the results will make it possible to make future performance predictions hence contributing to the possibility of controlling university performances. A research design simply includes a strategy applicable for a specific study and the plan of actively exercising the strategy. The research methodologies in use will include quantitative designs as well as qualitative designs individually thus resulting to a combination of both. Qualitative research design mainly involves techniques and measures, which do not eventually produce discrete numerical data (Creswell, 1997). Qualitative data collection incorporates such methods as direct observation by the researcher, active participation or interviews. Qualitative research illustrates relevance in this research as it aims at achieving an in depth understanding of the factors contributing to the depreciation in university studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. Inclusion of arrays of interpretative techniques to describe and translate the data collected will further improve the quality of the data (Maxwell, 2007). Subsequently, after collection of data through the qualitative research design, the d ata analysis will involve; content analysis of written or recorded data as well as data drawn from the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ expressions and behavioral observations. On the other hand, quantitative research design utilizes techniques and measures that in turn produce discrete numerical thus quantifiable data. Hence, this design will integrate computer analysis
Monday, August 12, 2019
The Human - Computer Interface - Essay Example User experience can be vastly enhanced by incorporating multiple sensors into virtual environments because people can immerse into another world more naturally and easily by using their whole body (Schrammel et. al., 2010). Therefore, the Human Computer Interface continues to expand in the field of human-computer communication bandwith by incorporating multiple sensory channels. Meanwhile the growing societal recognition of the needs of people with physical disabilities and neurodegenerative diseases also provide special application domains for Brain-Computer Interface (Tan & Nijholt, 2010). Some researchers advocate Ã¢â¬Å"user interface consistencyÃ¢â¬ as the golden rule in Human Computer Interaction dialogs. Possibility of automating the designs, monitoring, evaluating and comparing the interface properties are the most attractive benefits of consistent designs. However, a clear definition for consistency cannot be found in research literature. In general a consistent design is have, (1) internal interface design consistency and (2) external consistency of interface features with features of other interfaces familiar to the users. Users can obtain convenient, less expensive and versatile products by consistent designs. Example: the training time is 100% to 300% less compared to the random user interface design. Nevertheless some researchers advocate that diverting primary focus from users and their needs into consistency, as narrowing the spectrum of software engineering (Grudin, 1989). Haptic Technology MacLean, 2000, defines Ã¢â¬Å"haptic feedbackÃ¢â¬ as the Ã¢â¬Å"computer control over the tactile or kinesthetic properties of a physical interface, permitting realtime representation of a changing virtual or remote environment rather than a specific, constant handleÃ¢â¬ (p. 2). In general, haptic feedback is a mechanical response created by the haptic interface in terms of a special vibration sensation. Conventional vibration alerting differs from the haptic feedback as the latter involves advanced vibration patterns and waveforms that convey rather informative messages from a dynamic virtual environment to users. Human brain comprises of various visual, audible, smell, taste and haptic sensory neurons that are stimulated when an objects contact with the respective sensory channel. Sensory receptors located in the human body such as; muscles, tendons, joints and skin in the hands are important for human performances equally to hearing and visual sensing (Torre, 2006). Characteristics of the human brain have largely shaped the designing of modern human-computer interfaces. In the history, models of Human Computer Interactions were dominated by audio-visual simulations (Hayward et. al., 2004). Incorporating haptic, pressure, taste and smell sensors in remotely controlled and virtual environments can be considered as the greatest achievement in modern software engineering. Haptic technology is largely aimed at enhancing the oper ator performances and user experiences by kinesthetic and touch channels stimulation. Humans are rather cautious when touching a surface compared to looking at it. Such characteristics have shape the modern Human Computer Interfaces. Researchers advocate that haptic feedback is rather effective when used in conjugation with other sensory modalities. Example, Morris et. al., 2007, used haptic feedback for teaching undergraduate students a sensorimotor skill that have a force-sensitive component and requires recalling a